| More

Acute phase proteins and biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in Hypoderma spp. infested cattle

Views: 438 Downloads: 228


The aim of the present study was to determine concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress and some biochemical parameters in naturally infested cattle with Hypoderma spp. For this purpose, 10 clinically healthy cattle as controls and 25 Brown Swiss cattle with Hypoderma spp. were used. Blood samples were collectedto tubes from jugular vein. Parts of blood samples were stored without any process as a whole blood. The serum was separated from the remaining blood samples. The reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole blood and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), haptoglobin (Hp), ceruloplasmin, serum amyloid A (SAA), AST, GGT, ALP, CK, albumin, urea and total protein levels in serum were colorimetrically determined. The present study indicated that the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin, AST, GGT, ALP, CK, and MDA were significantly increased, and albumin, total protein, GSH concentrations were significantly decreased in the Hypoderma spp. infested group compared to the control group. Additionally, the increase in serum Hp levels was proportional to the number of Hypoderma spp. and it was statistically significant. In conclusion, the production of APP increased in a response to acute phase response in animals with subcutaneous warbles. Furthermore, liver functions were also shown to be impaired and oxidative stress developed as a result of metabolic products of the parasite in Hypoderma spp. infested cattle.


acute phase proteins; biochemical parameters; cattle; Hypoderma spp.; oxidative stress

Full Text:



Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly BM (1963) Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 61:882-888.

Boulard C (2002) Durably controlling bovine hypodermosis. Vet Res 33:455-464.

Celi P and Gabai G (2015) Oxidant/antioxidant balance in animal nutrition and health: the role of protein oxidation. Front Vet Sci 2:1-13.

Cerone SI, Sansinanea AS, Streitenberger SA, Garcia MC, Auza NJ (2000) Cytochrome c oxidase, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, and ceruloplasmin activities in copper-deficient bovines. Biol Trace Elem Res 73:269-278.

Chabaudie N and Boulard C (1992) Effect of hypodermin A, an enzyme secreted by Hypoderma lineatum (Insect Oestridae), on the bovine immune system. Vet Immunol Immunop 31:167-177.

Chabaudie N, Villejoubert C, Boulard C (1991) The response of cattle vaccinated with Hypodermin A to a natural infestation of Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum. Int J Parasitol 21:859-862.

Chen RJ, Hu AK, Yuan HH, Wang ZZ, Ji DJ, Wu LL, Zhang TY, Zhu YH, Sun W, Zhu XR (2014) The immunosuppression mechanism of hypodermin A on complement. Parasitol Int 63:392-396.

Colombo JP and Richterich R (1964) Zur bestimmung des caeruloplasmin im plasma [on the determination of ceruloplasmin in plasma]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr, 23:715-720.

Colwell DD (2001) Stage specific mortality and humoral immune responses during pulse and trickle infestations of the common cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae). Vet Parasitol 99:231-239.

Dacal V, Colwell DD, Lopez C, Perez V, Vazquez L, Cienfuegos S, Diaz P, Morrondo P, Diez-Banos P, Panadero R (2009) Local and systemic cytokine responses during larval penetration in cattle experimentally infested with Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae). Vet Immunol Immunop 131:59-64.

Değer S, Değer Y, Ertekin A, Gül A, Biçek K, Özdal N (2008) Determination of the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in cattle infected with Dictyocaulus viviparus. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 32:234-237.

Eckersall PD and Bell R (2010) Acute phase proteins: biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine. Vet J 185:23-27.

Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G (2002) Free radicals, antioxidants and nutrition. Nutrition 18:872-879.

Ganheim C, Hulten C, Carlsson U, Kindahl H, Niskanen R, Waller KP (2003) The acute phase response in calves experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus and /or Manheimia haemolytica. J Vet Med Ser B 50:183-190.

Gruys E, Obwolo MJ, Toussaint MJM (1994) Diagnostic significance of the major acute phase proteins in veterinary clinical chemistry. A Review. Vet Bull 64:1009-1018.

Gruys E, Toussaint MJM, Niewold TA, Koopmans SJ (2005) Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 6:1045-1056.

Gutteridge JM (1993) Free radicals in disease processes: a compilation of cause and consequence. Free Radic Res Commun 19:141-158.

Halliwell B (1994) Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: curiosity, cause or consequence. Lancet 344:721-724.

Horadagoda A, Eckersall PD, Hodgson JC, Gibbs HA, Moon GM (1994) Immediate responses in serum TNF and acute phase protein concentrations to infection with P. haemolytica A1 in calves. Res Vet Sci 57:129-132.

Höfner MC, Fosbery MW, Eckersall PD, Donaldson AL (1994) Haptoglobin response of cattle infected with foot-mouth disease virus. Res Vet Sci 57:125-128.

Hu AK, Chen RJ, Zhu XR, Gu JH, Liu ZP (2015) Immunosuppressive effect of hypodermin C on complement component 3 in vitro. Cell Biochem Biophys 72:93-98.

Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML (2008) Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 6th Ed., Academic Press, New York: pp 364-390.

Lopez C, Colwell DD, Panadero R, Paza A, Perez J, Morrondo P, Diez P, Cascallana JL, Santamaria V, Bravo A (2005) Skin immune responses in cattle after primary and secondary infections with Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae. Vet Immunol Immunop 108:285-294.

Malassagne B, Regimbeau JM, Taboit F, Troalen F, Chereau C, Moire N, Attal J, Batteux F, Conti F, Calmus Y, Houssin D, Boulard C, Houdebine LM, Weill B (2003) Hypodermin A, a new inhibitor of human complement for the prevention of xenogeneic hyperacute rejection. Xenotransplantation 10:267-277.

Moire N (1998) Hypodermin A and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. Parasitol Today 14:455-457.

Murata H, Shimada N, Yoshioka M (2004) Current research on acute phase proteins in veterinary diagnosis: an overview. Vet J 168:28-40.

Nicolas-Gaulard I, Moire N, İnra CB (1995) Effect of the parasite enzyme, hypodermin A, on bovine lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production via the prostaglandin pathway. Immunol 84:160-165.

Ozkurt-Borazan G, Aktas MS, Camkerten I, Gokçen A, Ipek H, Sahin T, Uren Paksoy N (2011) Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, catalase activity and malondialdehit level in hypodermosis. J Anim Vet Adv 1:84-86.

Özcel MA (2013) Veteriner Hekimliğinde Parazit Hastalıkları Cilt 1, Meta press, İzmir: pp 297-300.

Özkutlu Z and Sevgili M (2005) Şanlıurfa yöresindeki sığırlarda hypodermosis’in seroprevalansı, Turkiye Parazitol Derg 29:275-279.

Panadero R, Dacal V, Lopez C, Vazquez L, Cienfuegos S, Diaz P, Morrondo P, Diez-Banos P (2009) Immunomodulatory effect of Hypoderma lineatum antigens: in vitro effect on ovine lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Parasite Immunol 31:72-77.

Panadero R, Lopez C, Vazquez L, Diaz P, Perez A, Cabanelas E, Morrondo P, Diez-Banos P (2013) Effect of reinfestations on systemic immune responses in cattle naturally infested by Hypoderma sp. (Diptera: Oestridae). Vet Parasitol 193:238-244.

Percival M (1998) Antioxidants. Clin Nutr Insights 31:1-4.

Petersen HH, Nielsen JP, Heegaard PM (2004) Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry. Vet Res 35:163-187.

Russell KE and Roussel AJ (2007) Evaluation of the ruminant serum chemistry profile. Vet Clin Food Anim 23:403-426.

Skinner JG, Brown RA, Roberts L (1991) Bovine haptoglobin response in clinically defined field conditions.Vet Rec 128:147-149.

SPSS (2011) IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, New York.

Taşcı S, Değer S, Akgül Y (1994) Van ve yöresinde hypodermosis, YYÜ Vet Fak Derg 5:143-153.

Tothova C, Nagy O, Kovac G (2014) Acute phase proteins and their use in the diagnosis of diseases in ruminants: a review. Vet Med 59:163-180.

Toussaint MJM, van Ederen AM, Gruys E (1995) Implication of clinical pathology in assessment of animal health and in animal production and meat inspection. Comp Haematol Int 5:149-157.

Vazquez L, Dacal V, Lopez C, Diaz P. Morrondo P, Diez-Banos P, Panadero R (2012) Antigen-specific antibody isotypes, lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profiles in cattle naturally infested by Hypoderma sp. (Diptera: Oestridae). Vet Parasitol 184:230-237.

Wells B, Innocent GT, Eckersall PD, McCulloch E, Nisbet AJ, Stewart TG, Wells B (2013) Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation. Vet Res 44:103-114.

Whicher T, Bienvenu J, Price CP (1991) Molecular biology, measurement and clinical utility of the acute phase proteins. Pure&Appl Chem 63:1111-1116.

Yoshioka T, Kawada K, Shimada T, Mori M (1979) Lipid peroxidation in maternal and cord blood and protective mechanism against activated- oxygen toxicity in the blood. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135:372-376.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.