| More

Effects of olive pulp addition to broiler diets on performance, selected biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymes

Views: 1050 Downloads: 484


Olive oil production generates various by-products that can be used in animal nutrition. These by-products contain several polyphenolic compounds that may exhibit antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of adding olive pulp to the feed on broiler performance, carcass yield and antioxidant enzymes. Two hundred (200), as hatched, day-old, Cobb 500 broilers were reared in total for 42 days. There were 4 dietary treatments. In T1 treatment, no olive pulp was added to starter, grower and finisher diet. In T2 treatment, olive pulp was added to starter, grower and finisher diet at a level of 0, 2.5 and 5% respectively. In T3 treatment, olive pulp was added to starter, grower and finisher diet at a level of 0, 5 and 5% respectively. In T4 treatment, olive pulp was added to starter, grower and finisher diet at a level of 0, 5 and 8% respectively. Performance, carcass yield and a number of biochemical parameters were examined. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol were present in the olive pulp at 952 and 216 mg/kg respectively. Broilers performed well and no differences were observed between treatments on final body weight, carcass yield, total antioxidant activity and expression of selected antioxidant enzymes. Discriminant analysis was further applied and revealed that samples clustered according to added level of olive pulp. Samples from broilers fed T2 and T3 diet were located in the middle of the plot away from other treatments exhibiting high values of carcass, breast yield and most of the antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, olive pulp can be used up to 5% in diets of broilers and future studies conducted on-farm conditions may pronounce its impact on growth performance and antioxidant potential.


antioxidant; broilers; hydroxytyrosol; oleuropein; olive pulp

Full Text:



Abo Omar JM (2005) Carcass composition and visceral organ mass of broiler chicks fed different levels of olive pulp. IUG J Nat Stud 13:175-184.

Al-Harthi MA (2015) The effect of different dietary contents of olive cake with or without Saccharomyces cerevisiae on egg production and quality, inner organs and blood constituents of commercial layers. Europ Poult Sci 79.

Al-Harthi MA (2016) The efficacy of using olive cake as a byproduct in broiler feeding with or without yeast. Ital J Anim Sci 15:512-520.

Al-Harthi MA (2017) The effect of olive cake, with or without enzymes supplementation, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, lymphoid organs and lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. Braz J Poultry Sci 19:83-90.

AOAC (2005) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC Int. 18th ed. AOAC Int., Gaithersburg, MD.

Atapattu NSB, Senaratna MD, Belpagodagamage UD (2008) Comparison of ammonia emission rates from three types of broiler litters. Poult Sci 87:2436-2440.

Benzie IF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239:70-76.

Botsoglou E, Govaris A, Fletouris D, Iliadis S (2013) Olive leaves (Olea europea L.) and α-tocopheryl acetate as feed antioxidants for improving the oxidative stability of α-linolenic acid-enriched eggs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 97:740-753.

Branciari R, Galarini R, Giuseppon D, Trabalza-Marinucci M, Forte C, Roila R, Miraglia D, Servili M, Acuti G, Valiani A (2017) Oxidative status and presence of bioactive compounds in meat from chickens fed polyphenols extracted from olive oil industry waste. Sustainability 9: 1566-1579.

Campbell TW (2004) Clinical chemistry of birds. In: Thrall, M.A. (Ed.), Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, USA).

Cardoso SM, Guyot S, Marnet N, Lopes-Da-Silva JA, Silva AMS, Renard MGC, Coimbra MA (2006) Identification of oleuropein oligomers in olive pulp and pomace. J Sci Food Agric 86:1495-1502.

Cobb-Vantress (2015) Cobb 500 Broiler Performance & Nutrition Supplement (Siloam Springs, Arkansas, USA).

Donohue M, Cunningham DL (2009) Effects of grain and oilseed prices on the costs of US poultry production. J Appl Poult Res 18:325-337.

European Commission (2017) EU Agricultural outlook for the agricultural markets and income 2017-2030. Accessed 13 February 2018. https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sites/agriculture/files/markets-and-prices/medium-term-outlook/2017/2017-fullrep_en.pdf

Fathalla SI, Abou Elkhair RM, Shawky SM, Abdelrahman HA, Elfeki MA (2015) Impact of feeding dried rumen content and olive pulp with or without enzymes on growth performance, carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of molar ducks. Int J Agric Res Innov Technol 4:523-529.

Frankel E, Bakhouche A, Lozano-Sánchez J, Segura-Carretero A, Fernández-Gutiérrez A (2013) Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols. J Agric Food Chem 61:5179-5188.

Gerasopoulos K, Stagos D, Kokkas S, Petrotos K, Kantas D, Goulas P, Kouretas D (2015) Feed supplemented with byproducts from olive oil mill wastewater processing increases antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens. Food Chem Toxicol 82:42-49.

Habig W, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB (1974) Glutathione S-transferases: The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 249:7130-7139.

Heuzé V, Tran G, Gomez Cabrera A, Lebas F (2015) Olive oil cake and by-products. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Accessed 14 February 2018. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/32.

Kalogeropoulos N, Tsimidou MZ (2014) Antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils. Antioxidants 3:387-413.

King AJ, Griffin JK, Roslan F (2014) In vivo and in vitro addition of dried olive extract in poultry. J Agric Food Chem 62:7915-7919.

Mateos GG, Jiménez-Moreno E, Serrano MP, Lázaro RP (2012) Poultry response to high levels of dietary fiber sources varying in physical and chemical characteristics. J Appl Poult Res 21:156-174.

Mavis RD, Stellwagen E (1968) Purification and subunit structure of glutathione 486 reductase from bakers’ yeast. J Biol Chem 243:809-814.

Mccord JM & Fridovich I (1969) Superoxide dismutase: An enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein). J Biol Chem 244:6049-6055.

Murakami AE, Saleh EA, Watkins SE, Waldroup PW (2000) Sodiumsource and level in broiler diets with and without high levels of animal protein. J Appl Poult Res 9:53-61.

Oke, OE, Emeshili UK, Lyasere OS, Abioja MO, Daramola JO, Ladokun AO, Abiona JA, Williams TJ, Rahman SA, Rotimi SO, Balogun SI, Adejuyigbe AE (2017) Physiological responses and performance of broiler chickens offered olive leaf extract under a hot humid tropical climate. J Appl Poult Res 26: 376–382.

Omar SH (2010) Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects. Sci Pharm 78:133-154.

Paglia DE, Valentine WN (1967) Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 70:158-169.

Paiva-Martins F, Ribeirinha T, Silva A, Gonçalves R, Pinheiro V, Mourão JL, Outor-Monteiro D (2014) Effects of the dietary incorporation of olive leaves on growth performance, digestibility, blood parameters and meat quality of growing pigs. J Sci Food Agric 94:3023-3029.

Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B, Del Rio D, Salvatore S, Bianchi M, Brighenti F (2003) Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beveragesand oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. J Nutr 133:2812-2819.

Popp J, Lakner Z, Harangi-Rákos M, Fári M (2014) The effect of bioenergy expansion: Food, energy, and environment. Renew Sust Energ Rev 32: 559-578.

Sansoucy R (1985) Olive By-products for Animal Feed. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Sayehban P, Seidavi A, Dadashbeiki M, Ghorbani A, Araújo WAG, Albino LFT (2015) Effects of different dietary levels of two types of olive pulp and exogenous enzyme supplementation on the gastrointestinal tract size, immunology and hematology of broilers. Braz J Poultry Sci 17:73-85.

Shah SB, Baird CL, Rice JM (2007) Effect of a metabolic stimulant on ammonia volatilization from broiler litter. J Appl Poult Res 16:240-247.

Silva S, Gomes L, Leitão F, Coelho AV, Vilas Boas L (2006) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Olea europaea L. fruits and leaves. Food Sci Technol Int 12:385-396.

Taklimi SM, Ghahri H, Pour-Reza J, Fazaeli H, Lotfollahian H (1999) Investigation into the possible use of olive pulp in commercial layer diets. Br Poult Sci 40S1:40-41.

Tarek MS, Ibrahim MA, Saud MA (2013) Effect of feeding olive leaves extract (oleuropein) on the performance, nutrient utilization, small intestine and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. J Anim Vet Adv 12:740–746.

Van Der Klis JD, Fledderus J (2007) Evaluation of raw materials for poultry: what’s up? In: Proceedings of the 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition. World Poultry Science Association, Strasbourg, France.


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.