| More

A New Look at an Inscribed Ceramic Medallion with Gladiators (Equites) from the Region of Parthicopolis in the Roman Province of Macedonia

Views: 85 Downloads: 33
Emil Nankov
Emil Nankov

Abstract


This paper reconsiders a ceramic medallion found near the village of Palat on the right bank of the Strymon River, ca. 8 km northwest of the town of Sandanski in southwest Bulgaria. The cluster of Roman settlements near the village of Palat may have belonged to the territory of Parthicopolis (mod. Sandanski), which fell under the jurisdiction of Macedonia Prima. The medallion illustrates a gladiatorial combat between two equites, who are identifiable through their pairing, clothing and weapons. Autopsy established the presence of a Greek inscription, which had so far escaped attention. The recorded names, Σωτηρίδας and Αἴας, seem to correspond to the equites depicted. Gladiatorial scenes with inscribed names are quite commonly represented on various media, including ceramic medallions, especially in the western provinces of the Roman empire. Ceramic medallions, serving a range of functions, were mass-produced in molds. The larger dimensions of our example, most probably a product of a local workshop, could be intended to be hung on a wall in the privacy of a domestic residence, although the possibility for funerary use cannot be excluded. This artifact from Palat, inspired by imagery current in the western provinces of the Roman empire, bears testimony to Roman cultural influence in the territory of Parthicopolis in the first half of the third century AD. At the same time, it offers hitherto overlooked iconographic indications that the equites’ role in the games was commemorated through the medium of ceramic medallions along the Thracian frontier, as it was in the western provinces of the Roman empire.


Keywords


Roman province of Macedonia, Parthicopolis, gladiators, equites, imperial cult

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adam-Veleni, P. 2012. “Εικονογραφημένη πρόσκληση σε μονομαχικούς αγώνες από την Αγορά της Θεσσαλονίκης και ρωμαϊκά θεάματα στη Μακεδονία”, in M. Tiverios, P. Nigdelis, P. Adam-Veleni (eds.), Threpteria: Studies on Ancient Macedonia. Thessaloniki, 278-315.

Alföldi, A. 1938. “Tonmodel und Reliefmedaillons aus den Donauländern”, Laureae Aquincenses memoriae Valentini Kuzsinsky dicatae. Vol. I (Dissertationes Pannonicae 2.10). Budapest, 312-341.

Allamani-Souri, V. 1987. “Μονομαχικά μνημεία στο μουσείο της Βέροιας”, Αμητός. Τιμητικός τόμος για τον καθηγητή Μανόλη Ανδρόνικο. Part 1. Thessaloniki, 33-55, pls. 4-6.

Barney, S.A., Lewis, W.J., Beach, J.A., Berghof, O. 2006. The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville. Translated, with Introduction and Notes. Cambridge.

Berger-Haas, L. 1967. “Gladiatores tunicati”, in E. Euler, M. Rohde-Liegle (eds.), Gestalt und Geschichte. Festschrift für Karl Schefold (Beiheft zur Halbjahresschrift Antike Kunst 4). Bern, 76-83.

Bernard, P., Salviat, F. 1962. “Inscriptions de Thasos”, BCH 86, 578-611.

Bozhinova, Y. 2015. “Hellenistic and Roman Necropolis near the Village of Rupite, Petrich Municipality”, in L. Vagalinski, E. Nankov (eds.), Heraclea Sintica: From Hellenistic Polis to Roman Civitas (4th c. BC – 6th c. AD). Proceedings of a Conference at Petrich, Bulgaria, September 19-21, 2013 (Papers of the American Research Center in Sofia 2). Sofia, 238-254.

Bozhkova, A., Delev, P. 2009. “Arheologichesko obhozhdane v zemlishtata na selata Mikrevo, Drakata i Palat, obshtina Strumyani”, Izvestiya na regionalen istoricheski muzey Blagoevgrad 5, 66-75.

Brown, S. 1992. “Death as Decoration: Scenes from the Arena on Roman Domestic Mosaics”, in A. Richlin (ed.), Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome. New York – Oxford, 180-211.

Brukner, O. 1997. “Keramichki medalioni – praznichni kolachi u rimskom keramichkom zanatstvu”, PBM 39, 97-102.

BullÉpigr. Bulletin épigraphique. Paris 1888-. Published as part of Revue des études grecques.

Buonopane, A. 2016. “Gladiatorum paria con didascalie su instrumentum: alcune considerazioni in margine a un elemento di cerniera bronzea rinvenuto a Bologna”, in S. Magnani, M. Buora, P. Ventura (eds.), Instrumenta Inscripta VI. Le iscrizioni con funzione didascalico-esplicativa: committente, destinatario, contenuto e descrizione dell’oggetto (Antichità Altoadriatiche 83). Trieste, 497-510.

Carter, M.J.D. 1999. The Presentation of Gladiatorial Spectacles in the Greek East: Roman Culture and Greek Identity (Diss. McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.).

Cholakov, I.D. 2008. “A Roman Production Centre for Terracottas in Heraclea Sintica (Southwest Bulgaria)”, Achaeologia Bulgarica 12.1, 55-76.

Cholakov, I.D. 2015. “Handcraft Production in Heraclea Sintica (on Archaeological Data)”, in L. Vagalinski, E. Nankov (eds.), Heraclea Sintica: From Hellenistic Polis to Roman Civitas (4th c. BC – 6th c. AD). Proceedings of a Conference at Petrich, Bulgaria, September 19-21, 2013 (Papers of the American Research Center in Sofia 2). Sofia, 126-143.

CIL. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berlin 1863-.

Coarelli, F. 1966. “Il Monumento di C. Lusius Storax: il rilievo con scene gladiatorie” (Studi miscellanei 10), 85-99.

Cociş, S., Ruscu, D. 1995. “Reliefmedaillons und Tonmatrizen aus Dakien”, Alba Regia 25, 121-135.

Dejean, H. 2011. Gladiateurs sur les lampes à huile antiques (e-book, Archeo-Numis).

Di Napoli, V. 2018. “Buildings for Entertainment in Roman Macedonia: Between Continuity and Rupture with the Past”, in J. Fournier, M.-G.G. Parissaki (eds.), Les communautés du nord égéen au temps de l’hégémonie romaine: entre ruptures et continuités (Μελετήματα 77). Athens, 321-340.

Dodge, H. 2009. “Amphitheatres in the Roman East”, in T. Wilmott (ed.), Roman Amphitheaters and Spectacula: A 21st-Century Perspective. Papers from an International Conference Held at Chester, 16th-18th February, 2007 (BAR International Series 1946). Oxford, 29-46.

Ducros, M. 2018. “Organisation et importance des combats de gladiateurs dans les regions nord-égéennes: Macédoine, Thrace, Thasos”, in J. Fournier, M.-G.G. Parissaki (eds.), Les communautés du nord égéen au temps de l’hégémonie romaine: entre ruptures et continuités (Μελετήματα 77). Athens, 341-357.

Dunbabin, K.M.D. 1978. The Mosaics of Roman North Africa: Studies in Iconography and Patronage. Oxford.

Dunkle, R. 2013. Gladiators: Violence and Spectacle in Ancient Rome. London – New York.

Ensoli, S., La Rocca, E. (eds.) 2000. Aurea Roma: dalla città pagana alla città cristiana. Rome.

Flecker, M. 2015. Römische Gladiatorenbilder: Studien zu den Gladiatorenreliefs der späten Republik und der Kaiserzeit aus Italien. Wiesbaden.

Fol, A., Lichardus†, J., Nikolov, V. (eds.) 2004. Die Thraker: Das goldene Reich des Orpheus. Mainz.

Garbov, D. 2017. “Territorium Parthicopolitanum et Tristolense: Reconstructing the Administrative Landscape of Northern Sintica”, in E. Nankov (ed.), Sandanski and Its Territory during Prehistory, Antiquity and Middle Ages: Current Trends in Archaeological Research. Proceedings of an International Conference at Sandanski, September 17-20, 2015 (Papers of the American Research Center in Sofia 3). Veliko Tarnovo, 389-410.

Gavrilović, N. 2011. “Ceramic Crustulum with the Representation of Nemesis-Diana from Viminatium: A Contribution to the Cult of Goddess Nemesis in Roman Provinces of Central Balkans”, Starinar 61, 191-203.

Gerasimova, V. 2010. “Dva nadpisa ot bazilika no. 4 v Sandanski (predvaritelno saobshtenie)”, Numizmatika, sfragistika i epigrafika 6, 191-206.

Grant, M. 1967. Gladiators. New York.

Gregori, G.L. 2011. “I gladiatori: onomastica, stato giuridico, condizioni di vita”, in G.L. Gregori, Ludi e munera: 25 anni di ricerche sugli spettacoli d’età romana. Milan, 41-48.

Hönle, A., Henze, A. 1981. Römische Amphitheater und Stadien: Gladiatorenkämpfe und Circusspiele. Zurich.

IGBulg. G. Mihailov, Inscriptiones Graecae in Bulgaria repertae. 5 vols. Sofia. 1956-1997.

ILS. H. Dessau, Inscriptiones Latinae selectae. Berlin. 1892-1916.

Ivanovski, M. 2001. “Keramički pečati iz Marvinaca kod Valandova”, in M. Lazić (ed.), Vestigatio Vetustatis. Aleksandrini Cermanović-Kurmanović od prijateva, saradnika i učenika. Beograd, 197-207.

Junkelmann, M. 2000a. Das Spiel mit dem Tod: So kämpften Roms Gladiatoren. Mainz.

Junkelmann, M. 2000b. “Familia Gladiatoria: The Heroes of the Amphitheatre”, in E. Köhne, C. Ewigleben, R. Jackson (eds.), Gladiators and Caesars: The Power of Spectacle in Ancient Rome. Berkeley – Los Angeles, 31-74.

Kalcev, K. 1991. “Zur Herstellung der antiken Keramik in Augusta Trajana/Stara Zagora”, RCRFActa 29/30, 245-273.

Kockel, V. 1983. Die Grabbauten vor dem Herkulaner Tor in Pompeji (Beiträge zur Erschliessung hellenistischer und kaiserzeitlicher Skulptur und Architektur 1). Mainz.

Koukouvou, A. 2006. “Επιτύμβια στήλη θηριομάχου από τη Βέροια”, ΑΑΑ 39, 161-173.

Kulov, I. 2005. “Sastoyanie na arheologicheskite prouchvaniya v obshtina Strumyani”, Izvestiya na istoricheski muzey Kyustendil 12, 53-60.

Leleković T. 2004. “Crustulum iz Vincovaca”, Arheološki Radovi i Rasprave 14, 103-119.

LGPN. A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names. Oxford. 1987-.

Mann, Ch. 2009. “Gladiators in the Greek East: A Case Study in Romanization”, IJHS 26.2, 272-297.

Mattern, S.P. 2013. The Prince of Medicine: Galen in the Roman Empire. Oxford – New York.

McLean, B.H. 2002. An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods from Alexander the Great down to the Reign of Constantine (323 B.C.-A.D. 337). Ann Arbor.

Meijden, E. van der (ed.) 2007. Die alten Zivilisationen Bulgariens: Das Gold der Thraker. Basel.

Migotti, B. 2000. “Keramički sa krustula Štrbinaca kod Đakova”, Radovi Razdio povijesnih znanosti 38, 39-65.

Minchev, A. 2008. “Theatre, Rituals and Parades: The Ancient Ceramic and Metal Masks from Thrace and Moesia”, in A. Minchev (ed.), Gods, Humans, Masks. Varna, 14-20.

Nigdelis, P., Stefani, L. 2000. “Nέα επιτύμβια μνημεία μονομάχων από τη Bέροια”, Τεκμήρια 5, 87-107.

Nigdelis, P., Tzelepidou, A. 2015-2016. “Two New Gladiatorial Monuments from Amphipolis”,Τεκμήρια 13, 71-78.

Nuţu, G., Paraschiv, D. 2013. “A Medallion with an Erotic Scene from Beroe, on the North Danubian Limes”, Novensia 24, 127-139.

Papini, M. 2004. Munera gladiatoria e venationes nel mondo delle immagini. Rome.

Parlasca, K. 1959. Die römischen Mosaiken in Deutschland (Römisch-Germanische Forschungen 23). Berlin.

Petrova, S. 2016. “The Roman Theatre in Paroicopolis/Parthicopolis and Its Historical Fortune”, in M. Rakocija (ed.), Niš and Byzantium. Fourteenth International Symposium, Niš, 3-5 June 2015 (The Collection of Scientific Works XIV). Niš, 187-212.

Popova, V. 2016. “Kultat kam Izida i Sarapis v rimskata plastika ot Balgariya: Addendum”, in M. Slavova, N. Sharankov (eds.), Monuments and Texts in Antiquity and Beyond. Essays for the Centenary of Georgi Mihailov (1915-1991) (Studia Classica Serdicensia 5). Sofia, 208-250.

Robert, L. 1946. “Monuments de gladiateurs dans l’Orient grec”, Hellenica 3, 112-150.

Robert, L. 1950. “Monuments de gladiateurs dans l’Orient grec”, Hellenica 8, 39-72.

Robert, L. 1971. Les gladiateurs dans l’Orient grec. Amsterdam. Reprint.

Sabbatini Tumolesi, P. 1980. Gladiatorum paria: annunci di spettacoli gladiatorii a Pompei (Tituli 1). Rome.

Sanie, S. 1981. Civiliza ia romană la est de Carpa i şi romanitatea pe teritoriul Moldovei (sec. II î.e.n.-III e.n.). Iaşi.

SEG. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. Leiden. 1923-.

Sharankov, N. 2016. “Heraclea Sintica in the Second Century AD: New Evidence from Old Inscriptions”, Archaeologia Bulgarica 20.2, 57-74.

Sharankov, N. 2017. “A Verse Epitaph and Other Unpublished Inscriptions from Heraclea Sintica”, Archaeologia Bulgarica 21.1, 15-38.

Stern, H. 1957. Recueil général des mosaïques de la Gaule, Fasc. I Province de Belgique I: Partie Ouest (Gallia Suppl. X). Paris.

Streinu, M.C. 2018. “Gladiators and Imperial Cult in Roman Thrace”, in J. Fournier, M.-G.G. Parissaki (eds.), Les communautés du nord égéen au temps de l’hégémonie romaine: entre ruptures et continuités (Μελετήματα 77). Athens, 357-362.

Vagalinski, L.F. 2005. “Gladiatorski keramichen relef ot Yugozapadna Balgariya”, in Rabadzhiev, K. (ed.), Stephanos Archaeologikos in honorem Professoris Ludmili Getov (Studia Archaeologica Universitatis Serdicensis Suppl. IV). Sofia, 89-90.

Vagalinski, L.F. 2009. Krav i zrelishta: Sportni i gladiatorski igri v elinisticheska i rimska Trakiya. Sofia.

Ville, G. 1981. La gladiature en Occident des origines à la mort de Domitien. Rome.

Vujović, M. 2011. “Ceramic Plaque with Two Gladiators from Viminacium”, Vesnik Vojnog muzeja 38, 199-206.

Woodhead, A.G. 1992. The Study of Greek Inscriptions. Norman, Okla. – London. Reprint with new preface of 2nd ed., Cambridge 1981.

Wuilleumier, P., Audin, A. 1952. Les médaillons d’applique gallo-romains de la vallée du Rhône. Paris.

Zannis, A. 2014. Le pays entre le Strymon et le Nestos: géographie et histoire (VIIe-IVe siècle avant J.-C.) (Mελετήματα 71). Athens.

Zannis, A. 2017. “Society, Religion and Culture in the Middle Strymon Valley”, in E. Nankov (ed.), Sandanski and Its Territory during Prehistory, Antiquity and Middle Ages: Current Trends in Archaeological Research. Proceedings of an International Conference at Sandanski, September 17-20, 2015 (Papers of the American Research Center in Sofia 3). Veliko Tarnovo, 87-105.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.