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Understanding Limitations on Welfare Policy Innovation: The Case of National Guaranteed Minimum Income All Italiana

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Varvara Lalioti
Varvara Lalioti

Περίληψη


Στις αρχές του 2016, η Ιταλία παρέμενε μία από τις ελάχιστες χώρες της Ευρωζώνης που δεν διέθετε ελάχιστο εγγυημένο εισόδημα σε εθνικό επίπεδο. Εν μέσω της κρίσης και των σημαντικών περικοπών στις δημόσιες δαπάνες, πρόκειται για μείζονα έλλειψη του ιταλικού κράτους προνοίας. Αξιοποιώντας την επικοινωνία με πρόσωπα που έπαιξαν καίριο ρόλο στην ιταλική εμπειρία με το ελάχιστο εγγυημένο εισόδημα, κοινοβουλευτικά αρχεία και δευτερεύουσες πηγές, το παρόν 2 άρθρο εξιστορεί την εν λόγω εμπειρία. Χρησιμοποιείται μία προσέγγιση που δίνει έμφαση στον ρόλο σημαντικών για τη διαμόρφωση κοινωνικής πολιτικής εγχώριων φορέων, όπως είναι τα πολιτικά κόμματα, τα εργατικά συνδικάτα και οι θρησκευτικές οργανώσεις. Η ανάλυση επικεντρώνεται ειδικότερα στον πειραματισμό με το ελάχιστο εγγυημένο εισόδημα σε εθνικό επίπεδο στην Ιταλία, στα τέλη της δεκαετίας 1990 και τις αρχές της δεκαετίας 2000. Το πείραμα οδηγήθηκε σε ένα άδοξο τέλος. Η αιτία πρέπει να αναζητηθεί στην ισχνή υποστήριξη για το ελάχιστο εγγυημένο εισόδημα, σε συνδυασμό με την κυριαρχία υπέρ της βόρειας Ιταλίας συμφερόντων στο υπουργείο που ήταν υπεύθυνο για τον σχεδιασμό και την υλοποίηση ενός μέτρου που ευνοούσε κυρίως τον φτωχότερο νότο. Πολιτικές που στοχεύουν σε άτομα που βρίσκονται στα περιθώρια του κοινωνικού και πολιτικού συστήματος μπορούν να στεφθούν με επιτυχία μόνον υπό την προϋπόθεση ευρείας συναίνεσης. Η πρόσφατη οικονομική κρίση αναζωπύρωσε τη συζήτηση για το ελάχιστο εγγυημένο εισόδημα στην Ιταλία, με νέους και παλαιούς φορείς να εκδηλώνουν το ενδιαφέρον τους για μία εθνικής εμβέλειας εφαρμογή.

Λέξεις κλειδιά


ελάχιστο εγγυημένο εισόδημα; Ιταλία; διαμορφωτές κοινωνικής πολιτικής

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