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‘‘Classic’’ theories and current challenges concerning welfare state development

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Varvara Lalioti
Varvara Lalioti

Περίληψη


Στόχος του παρόντος άρθρου είναι μία πολύ συνοπτική παρουσίαση ‘κλασικών’ θεωριών που αφορούν στην ανάπτυξη του κράτους πρόνοιας, υπογραμμίζοντας ταυτόχρονα την ανάγκη η κοινωνική πολιτική να λάβει υπ’ όψιν της τις σύγχρονες προκλήσεις που αντιμετωπίζει το κράτος πρόνοιας, και να ‘μετασχηματίσει’ τις παλαιές θεωρίες, σε συμφωνία με νέες κατευθύνσεις στην έρευνα. Στο πρώτο μέρος του άρθρου παρουσιάζονται με τρόπο πολύ περιληπτικό και κριτικό ‘κλασικές’ θεωρητικές προσεγγίσεις. Αυτές περιλαμβάνουν την επιρροή της βιομηχανικής ανάπτυξης, των εθνικών αξιών και των εργοδοτών στην ανάπτυξη κοινωνικής πολιτικής, καθώς και  τη θεωρία των πόρων εξουσίας και τον ιστορικό θεσμισμό. Περιλαμβάνουν όμως ακόμη τη γενικότερη τάση κατάταξης των κρατών πρόνοιας, η οποία βασίστηκε σε στοιχεία των προαναφερθεισών προσεγγίσεων και εισήγαγε νέες μεταβλητές όπως το φύλο. Το δεύτερο μέρος του άρθρου αφορά σε ισχυρές, σύγχρονες προκλήσεις που αντιμετωπίζει το κράτος πρόνοιας όπως είναι η μετανάστευση και η αυξανόμενη εθνική ποικιλομορφία, η νεοφιλελεύθερη παγκοσμιοποίηση και η πρόσφατη κρίση, καθώς και οι μεταβαλλόμενοι ρόλοι των φύλων. Οι προκλήσεις αυτές εγείρουν σημαντικές ερωτήσεις για το πεδίο της κοινωνικής πολιτικής και θέτουν σε δοκιμασία τα όρια παραδοσιακών αντιλήψεων για την κοινωνική πολιτική, προβάλλοντας ταυτόχρονα την ανάγκη για έναν εποικοδομητικό διάλογο ανάμεσα στο παλαιό και σε κάτι νεότερο, το οποίο θα συμπληρώσει το παλαιό. Ο διάλογος αυτός αποτελεί προαπαιτούμενο για τη σοβαρή και σύμφωνα με επιστημονικούς κανόνες διεξαγωγή έρευνας στο πεδίο της κοινωνικής πολιτικής. Η τελευταία ενότητα του άρθρου παρουσιάζει με τρόπο συνοπτικό τα συμπεράσματα.


Λέξεις κλειδιά


Welfare State; Social Policy; Political Economy

Πλήρες Κείμενο:

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