| More

Survival of pathogens in "Graviera Kritis" cheese made with raw and pasteurized milk

Views: 334 Downloads: 232


A field trial was carried out to investigate the hygienic status of Graviera 'Kritis' cheese made with raw and pasteurized milk. Graviera was manufactured in a small plant in Crete under traditional manufacturing conditions. Forty-two samples were examined during the manufacturing process for Colifoms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherìchia coli 0157:H7 and VRE (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci). All samples were negative for Salmonella spp., E. coli 0157:H7 and VRE. Populations of Colifoms and E. coli before cooking of the curd were 3 3.5 log10MPN/g higher in cheese made with raw milk in comparison to that made with pasteurized milk and populations of both bacteria decreased sharply during the aging period in both types of cheese. L. monocytogenes type 4b was isolated from the cheeses of two trials until after the salting period and remained under the detection limit of 100 cfu/g . At the end of the ripening period, all the examined bacteria were declined or eliminated to safe level.


Graviera cheese; raw milk; pathogen; safely

Full Text:



Abriouel H, Martin-Platero A, Maqueda M, Valdivia E, Martinez-Bueno M (2008) Biodiversity of the microbial community in a Spanish farmhouse cheese as revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 127:200-208

Bachmann HP, Spahr U (1995) The fate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in Swiss hard and semi-hard cheeses made from raw milk. J.DairySci.78:476-483.

Bielaszewska M, Janda J, Blahova K, Minarikova H, Jikova E, Karmali MA, Laubova J, Sikulova J, Preston MA, Khakhria R, Karch H, Klazarova H, Nye Ο (1997) Human Escherichia coli 0157:H7 infection associated with the consumption of unpasteurized goat's milk. Epidemiol. Infect. 119:299-305.

Brito J, Arcuri EF, Dos Santos EM, Luchansky JB, Lange CC, Nunes De Souza G, Brito M (2007) Source of contamination and control of Listeria monocytogenes in milk, cheese and the environment wherein they are produced. Revista Leite & Derivados 16(96): 89-93.

Caridi A, Micari P, Foti F, Romandino D, Sarulo V (2003) Ripening and seasonal changes in microbiological and chemical parameters of the artisanal cheese Caprino d'Aspramente produced from raw or thermized goat's milk. Food Microbiol. 20: 201-209

Cleveland J, Montville TJ, Nes IF, Chikindas ML (2001) Bacteriocins: safe natural antimicrobials for food preservation. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 71:1-20.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2006) Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard-Seventh Edition. CLSI document M7-A7. Wayne PA : Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Cordano AM, Rocourrt J (2001) Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in food in Chile. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 70:175-178

De Valk H, Delarocque-Astagneau E, Colomb G, Pie S, Godard E, Vaillant V, Haeghebaert S, Bouvet PH, Grimont F, Grimont P, Desenclos JC. (2000) A community-wide outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infection associated with eating a raw milk soft cheese in France. Epidemiol Infect 124:1-7.

DeBuyser ML, Dufour B, Maire M, Lafarge V (2001) Impication of milk and milk products in foodborne diseases in France and in different industrialized countries. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 67:1-17.

Donnely CW (2001) Factors associated with hygienic control and quality of cheeses prepared from raw milk: a review: Bull. Int. Dairy Fed. 369:16-27.

Eliskases-Lechner F, Ginzinger W, Rohm H, Tschager E (1999) Raw milk flora affects composition and quality of Bergkäse. 1. Microbiology and fermentation compounds. Lait 79:385-396

Espie E, Vaillant V, Mariani- Kurkdjjan Ρ, Grimont R, Martin- Schaller M, De Valk H, Vernozy- Pozand (2006) Escherichia coli 0157 outbreak associated with fresh unpasteurized goats' cheese. Epidemiol. Infect. 134,143-146.

European Commission Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Off. J, Eur. Union. L 338,1-25

Fox PF (1993) Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology Volume 1. New York: Chapman & Hall.

Garcia-Migura E, Pleydell S, Barnes, Davies RH, Liebana E (2005) Characterization of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolates from Broiler Poultry and Pig Farms in England and Wales. J. Clin. Microbiol.43(7) : 3253-3289

Giannati-Stefanou A, Tsakos P, Bourtzi - Hatzopoulou E, Anatoliotis Κ (2006) Study of microbiological aspects of meningoencephalalitis due to Listeria spp in ruminants. J. Hell. Vet. Med. Society 57(4): 275-288

Giannou E, Kakouri A, Bogovic Matijasic B, Rogelj I, Samelis J (2009) Fate of Listeria monocytogenes on fully ripened Greek Graviera cheese stored at 4,12 or 25 degrees C in air or vacuum packages: in situ PCR detection of a cocktail of bacteriocins potentially contributing to pathogen inhibition. Journal Food Protection 72(3):531-538.

Govaris A, Papageorgiou DK, Papatheodorou Κ (2002) Behaviour of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 during the Manufacture and Ripening of Feta and Telemes Cheeses. J. Food. Protêt.: 65,609-615.

Hudson LM, Chen J, Hill AR, Griffiths MW (1997) Bioluminescence:A Rapid Indicator of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in Selected Yogurt and Cheese Varieties. Journal of Food Protection, 60: 891-897.

Kudva IT, Hatfield PG, Horde CJ (1996) Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in microbial flora of sheep. J.Clin. Microbiol. 34,431-433.

Lindgren ES, Dobrogosz WJ (2006) Antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria in food and feed fermentation. FEMS 87:149-164

Litle LC, Rhoades RJ, Sagoo KS, Harris J, Greenwood M, Mithani V, Grant K, McLauchlin J (2008). Microbiological quality of retail cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk in the UK. Food Microbiol. 25:304-312

Litopoulou-Tzanetaki E, Tzanetakis Ν (1991) Microbiology study of white - brined cheese made from raw goat milk. Food Microbiol. 8:279

Litopoulou-Tzanetaki (1990) Changes in numbers and kinds of lactic acid bacteria during ripening of kefalotyri cheese. J. Food Sci. 55:111-113

Loncarevic S, Danielsson-Tham M, Tham W (1995) Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in soft and semi-soft cheeses in retail autlets in Sweden. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 26:245-250

Manolopoulou E, Sarantinopoulos P, Zoidou E, Aktypis A, Moschopoulou E, Kandarakis IG, Anifantakis EM (2003) Evolution of microbial populations during feta cheese manufacture and ripening. Int.J.Food Microbiol. 82:153-161

Moatsou G, Moschopoulou E, Anifantakis E (2004) Effect of different manufacturing parameters on the characteristics of "Graviera Kritis" cheese. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 57(4):215-220.

Rodriguez E, Arqués JL, Gaya P, Nunez M, Medina M (2000) Behaviour of Staphylococcus aureus in semi-hard cheese made from raw milk with nisin-producing starter cultures. Milchwissenschaft 55, 633-635.

Samelis J, Lianou A, Kakouri A, Delbès C, Rogelj I, Bogovic-Matijasic B, Montel MC (2009a) Changes in the microbial composition of raw milk induced by thermization treatments applied prior to traditional Greek hard cheese processing. J. Food Protection 72(4):783-790.

Samelis J, Giannou E, Lianou A (2009b) Assuring growth inhibition of listerial contamination during processing and storage of traditional Greek Graviera cheese: compliance with the new European Union regulatory criteria for Listeria monocytogenes. J. Food Protection 72(11):2264-2271.

Samelis J, Kakouri A, Pappa E, Bogovic Matijasic B, Georgalaki M, Tsakalidou E, Rogelj A (2010). Microbial stability and safety of traditional Greek Graviera cheese: characterization of the lactic acid bacterial flora and culture-independent detection of bacteriocin genes in the ripened cheeses and their microbial consortia. Journal Food Protection 73(7): 1294-1303.

Strachan NJC, Fenlon DR, Ogden ID (2001) Modeling the vector pathway and infection of humans in an environmental outbreak of Escherichia coli 0157. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 203: 69-73.

Topisirovic L, Kojic M, Fira D, Golic N, Strahinic I, Lozo J (2006). Potential of lactic bacteria isolated from specific natural niches in food production and preservation. J. Food Microbiol. 112:230-235

Tzanetakis N, Litopoulou- Tzanetaki E (1992) Changes in numbers and kinds of lactic acid bacteria in Feta and Teleme, two Greek cheeses from ewes' milk. J. Dairy Sci.75:1389-1393

Vernozy-Rozand C, Meyrand A, Mazuy C, Delignette-Muller ML, Jaubert Perrin G, Lapeyre C, Richard Y (1998) Behaviour and enterotoxin production by Staphylococcus aureus during the manufacture and ripening of raw goats' milk lactic cheese. J. Dairy Res. 65:273-281

Zarate V, Belda F, Perez C, Cardell E (1997) Changes in the Microbial Flora of Tenerife Goats' Milk Cheese During Ripening. Int. J. Dairy 7:635-641

Zdragas A, Samouris G, Filiousis G, Petridou E, Giantzi V (2009). Isolation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 from ewes' and goats' milk un Greece. Arch Lebensmittelhyg 60, 36-38.


  • There are currently no refbacks.