| More

Predisposing factors and control of bacterial mastitis in dairy ewes

Views: 916 Downloads: 359
G. BRAMIS, A. I. GELASAKIS, E. KIOSSIS, G. BANOS, G. ARSENOS
G. BRAMIS, A. I. GELASAKIS, E. KIOSSIS, G. BANOS, G. ARSENOS

Abstract


Bacterial mastitis is a major health problem in dairy sheep worldwide. It is associated with reduced milk yield and occasionally involuntary culling of affected ewes, as well as insufficient growth and mortality of lambs. In general, the incidence of clinical mastitis in ewes during lactation is lower than 5%. However, the prevalence of subclinical mastitis is variable ranging from 10-30% or more. In clinical cases of bacterial intramammary infections, Staphylococcus aureus is dominant. In the case of subclinical mastitis the prevailing isolates are Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci(CNS). Moreover, predisposing factors related to the environment, genetics, udder morphology and nutrition, are likely to contribute to the occurrence of mastitis. Hence, control of the latter factors and bacteriological contamination during milking are the main preventive measures. The notion is that detection of the ovine genome regions involved in mastitis resistance will also facilitate the most effective control of mastitis in flock level. Appropriate genetic selection, together with the implementation of preventive measures, could reduce the negative consequences of bacterial mastitis.

Keywords


dairy ewes; genetic selection; intramammary infections; mastitis; risk factors

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmad G, Timms LL, Morrical DG, Brackelsberg PO (1992) Ovine subclinical mastitis efficacy of dry treatment, Sheep Res. J. 8:30–33.

Albenzio M, Taibi L, Caroprese M, De Rosa G, Muscio A, Sevi A. (2003) Immune response, udder health and productive traits of machine milked and suckling ewes. Small Ruminant Research 48:189-200.

Amorena B, Baselga R, Albizu I (1994) Use of liposome-immunopotentiated exopolysaccharide as a component of an ovine mastitis staphylococcal vaccine. Vaccine 12: 243-249.

Ariznabarreta A, Gonzalo C, San Primitivo F (2002) Microbiological Quality and Somatic Cell Count of Ewe Milk with Special Reference to Staphylococci. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1370-1375.

Arsenault J, Dubreuil P, Higgins R, Bélanger D (2008) Risk factors and impacts of clinical and subclinical mastitis in commercial meat-producing sheep flocks in Quebec, Canada. Prev. Vet. Med. 87:373-393.

Barillet F (2007) Genetic improvement for dairy production in sheep and goats. Small Ruminant Research 70:60-75.

Barillet F, Rupp R, Mignon-Grasteau S, Astruc JM, Jacquin M (2001) Genetic analysis for mastitis resistance and milk somatic cell score in French Lacaune dairy sheep. Genet. Sel. Evol. 33:397-415.

Bergonier D, Berthelot X (2003) New advances in epizootiology and control of ewe mastitis. Livest. Prod. Sci. 79:1-16.

Bergonier D, de Cremoux R, Rupp R, Lagriffoul G, Berthelot X (2003) Mastitis of dairy small ruminants. Vet. Res. 34:689-716.

Berriatua E, Ziluaga I, Miguel-Virto C, Uribarren P, Juste R, Laevens S, Vandamme P, Govan JR (2001) Outbreak of subclinical mastitis in a flock of dairy sheep associated with Burkholderia cepacia complex infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:990-994.

Berthelot X, Lagriffoul G, Concordet D, Barillet F, Bergonier D (2006) Physiological and pathological thresholds of somatic cell counts in ewe milk. Small Ruminant Research 62:27-31.

Bonnefont C, Toufeer M, Caubet C, Foulon E, Tasca C, Aurel M, Bergonier D, Boullier S, Robert-Granie C, Foucras G, Rupp R (2011) Transcriptomic analysis of milk somatic cells in mastitis resistant and susceptible sheep upon challenge with Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. BMC Genomics 12:208.

Bramis G, Arsenos G, Psifidi A, Banos G (2014) Genetic parameters of mastitis related traits in dairy sheep. British Society of Animal Science Annual Conference, Nottingham, 2014:194.

Bramis G, Gelasakis AI, Petridou E, Kiossis E, Arsenos G, Banos G (2012) Incidence of subclinical mastitis in intensively reared ewes in Greece. 27thJubilee World Buiatrics Congress, Lisbon 2012, pp. 145.

Brugère-Picoux J (2008) Ovine listeriosis. Small Ruminant Research 76:12-20.

Calavas D, Bugnard F, Ducrot C, Sulpice P (1998) Classification of the clinical types of udder disease affecting nursing ewes. Small Ruminant Research 29:21-31.

Caroprese M (2008) Sheep housing and welfare. Small Ruminant Research 76:21-25.

Casu S, Sechi S, Salaris SL, Carta A (2010) Phenotypic and genetic relationships between udder morphology and udder health in dairy ewes. Small Ruminant Research 88:77-83.

Chaffer M, Leitner G, Zamir S, Winkler M, Glickman A, Ziv N, Saran A (2003) Efficacy of dry-off treatment in sheep. Small Ruminant Research 47:11-16.

Chang YM, Gianola D, Heringstad B, Klemetsdal G (2004) Effects of trait definition on genetic parameter estimates and sire evaluation for clinical mastitis with threshold models. Animal Science 79:355-363.

Conington J, Cao G, Stott A, Bunger L (2008) Breeding for resistance to mastitis in United Kingdom sheep, a review and economic appraisal. Vet. Rec. 162:369-376.

Contreras A, Paape MJ, Di Carlo AL, Miller RH, Rainard P (1997) Evaluation of Selected Antibiotic Residue Screening Tests for Milk from Individual Goats. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1113-1118.

Contreras A, Luengo C, Sánchez A, Corrales JC (2003) The role of intramammary pathogens in dairy goats. Livest. Prod. Sci. 79:273-283.

Contreras A, Sanchez A, Corrales J (2004) Health priorities in dairy goats. In: Daza, A., Fernandez, C., Sanchez, A. (Eds.), Goat Livestock: Production, Nutrition and Health. Ed. Agrıcola Espanola, Espana: pp. 229–243.

Contreras A, Sierra D, Sánchez A, Corrales JC, Marco JC, Paape MJ, Gonzalo C (2007) Mastitis in small ruminants. Small Ruminant Research 68:145-153.

Contreras A, Rodríguez JM (2011) Mastitis: comparative etiology and epidemiology. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 16:339-356.

Corrales JC, Sánchez A, Luengo C, Poveda JB, Contreras A (2004) Effect of Clinical Contagious Agalactia on the Bulk Tank Milk Somatic Cell Count in Murciano-Granadina Goat Herds. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3165-3171.

Cuccuru C, Meloni M, Sala E, Scaccabarozzi L, Locatelli C, Moroni P, Bronzo V (2011) Effects of intramammary infections on somatic cell score and milk yield in Sarda sheep. N. Z. Vet. J. 59:128-131.

Fotou K, Tzora A, Voidarou C, Alexopoulos A, Plessas S, Avgeris I, Bezirtzoglou E, Akrida-Demertzi K, Demertzis PG (2011) Isolation of microbial pathogens of subclinical mastitis from raw sheep’s milk of Epirus (Greece) and their role in its hygiene. Anaerobe 17:315-319.

Fragkou IA, Papaioannou N, Cripps PJ, Boscos CM, Fthenakis GC (2007) Teat Lesions Predispose to Invasion of the Ovine Mammary Gland by Mannheimia haemolytica. J. Comp. Pathol. 137:239-244.

Fragkou IA, Boscos CM, Fthenakis GC (2014) Diagnosis of clinical or subclinical mastitis in ewes. Small Ruminant Research 118:86-92.

Fthenakis GC (1994) Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in ewes of Southern Greece. Small Ruminant Research 13:293-300.

Fthenakis GC, Jones JET (1990) The effect of experimentally induced subclinical mastitis on milk yield of ewes and on the growth of lambs. Br. Vet. J. 146:43-49.

Fthenakis GC, Leontides L, Skoufos J, Taitzoglou IA, Tzora A (2004) Case report: high prevalence rate of ovine mastitis, caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci and predisposed by increased gossypol consumption. Small Ruminant Research 52:185-189

Fthenakis GC, Arsenos G, Brozos C, Fragkou IA, Giadinis ND, Giannenas I, Mavrogianni VS, Papadopoulos E, Valasi I (2012) Health management of ewes during pregnancy. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 130:198-212.

Gelasakis AI, Arsenos G, Valergakis GE, Oikonomou G, Kiossis E, Fthenakis GC (2012) Study of factors affecting udder traits and assessment of their interrelationships with milking efficiency in Chios breed ewes. Small Ruminant Research 103:232-239.

Gelasakis AI, Valergakis GE, Fortomaris P, Arsenos G (2010) Farm conditions and production methods in Chios sheep flocks. J. Hell. Vet. Med. Soc. 61:111-119.

Giadinis ND, Panousis N, Petridou EJ, Siarkou VI, Lafi SQ, Pourliotis K, Hatzopoulou E, Fthenakis GC (2011) Selenium, vitamin E and vitamin A blood concentrations in dairy sheep flocks with increased or low clinical mastitis incidence. Small Ruminant Research 95:193-196.

Gonzalo C, Marco J (1999) Ordeno mecanico e infeccion mamaria en el ovino lechero. Ovis 60: pp 11–21.

Gonzalo C, Ariznabarreta A, Carriedo JA, San Primitivo F (2002) Mammary Pathogens and Their Relationship to Somatic Cell Count and Milk Yield Losses in Dairy Ewes. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1460- 1467.

Gonzalo C, Tardaguila JA, De La Fuente LF, San Primitivo F (2004) Effects of selective and complete dry therapy on prevalence of intramammary infection and on milk yield in the subsequent lactation in dairy ewes. J. Dairy Res. 71:33-38.

Gonzalo C, Carriedo JA, Blanco MA, Beneitez E, Juárez MT, De La Fuente LF, Primitivo FS (2005) Factors of Variation Influencing Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count in Dairy Sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 88:969-974.

Gougoulis DA, Kyriazakis I, Tzora A, Taitzoglou IA, Skoufos J, Fthenakis GC (2008) Effects of lamb sucking on the bacterial flora of teat duct and mammary gland of ewes. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 43:22-26.

Heringstad B, Rekaya R, Gianola D, Klemetsdal G, Weigel KA (2003) Genetic Change for Clinical Mastitis in Norwegian Cattle: a Threshold Model Analysis. J. Dairy Sci. 86:369-375.

Kanellos TS, Burriel AR (2002) Production and novel quantification of haemolysins produced by coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from subclinical mastitis in sheep. New Microbiol. 25:367-373.

Kiossis E, Brozos CN, Petridou E, Boscos C (2007) Program for the control of subclinical mastitis in dairy Chios breed ewes during lactation. Small Ruminant Research 73: 194-199.

Kirk JH, Glenn JS (1996) Mastitis in ewes, Comp. Cont. Educ. Pract. 18: pp 582–591.

Koop G, Rietman JF, Pieterse C (2010) Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in Texel sheep associated with suckling twins. Veterinary Record 167:868-869.

Koutsoumpas AT, Giadinis ND, Petridou EJ, Konstantinou E, Brozos C, Lafi SQ, Fthenakis GC, Karatzias H (2013) Consequences of reduced vitamin A administration on mammary health of dairy ewes. Small Ruminant Research 110: 120-123.

Lafi SQ, al-Majali AM, Rousan MD, Alawneh JM (1998) Epidemiological studies of clinical and subclinical ovine mastitis in Awassi sheep in northern Jordan. Prev. Vet. Med. 33:171-181.

Lagriffoul G, Barillet F, Bergonier D, Berthelot X, Jacquin M (1999) Relation entre les comptages de cellules somatiques du lait de troupeau et la prévalence des mammites subcliniques des brebis estimée avec les comptages de cellules somatiques individuels, in: Barillet F., Zervas N.P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Milking of Small Ruminants. Milking and milk production of dairy sheep and goats, Athens, Greece, Wageningen Pers, The Netherlands, pp. 151–156.

Larsgard AG, Vaabenoe A (1993) Genetic and environmental causes of variation in mastitis in sheep. Small Ruminant Research 12:339-347.

Las Heras A, Dominguez L, Lopez I, Fernandez-Garayzabal JF (1999) Outbreak of acute ovine mastitis associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Vet. Rec. 145:111-112.

Las Heras A, Dominguez L, Lopez I, Paya MJ, Pena L, Mazzucchelli F, Garcia LA, Fernandez-Garayzabal JF (2000) Intramammary Aspergillus fumigatus infection in dairy ewes associated with antibiotic dry therapy. Vet. Rec. 147:578-580.

Legarra A, Ugarte E (2005) Genetic parameters of udder traits, somatic cell score, and milk yield in Latxa sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 88:2238-2245.

Leitner G, Chaffer M, Zamir S, Mor T, Glickman A, Winkler M, Weisblit L, Saran A (2001) Udder disease etiology, milk somatic cell counts and NAGase activity in Israeli Assaf sheep throughout lactation. Small Ruminant Research 39:107-112.

Leitner G, Chaffer M, Shamay A, Shapiro F, Merin U, Ezra E, Saran A, Silanikove N (2004) Changes in Milk Composition as Affected by Subclinical Mastitis in Sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 87:46-52.

Leitner G, Krifucks O (2007) Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis outbreaks in sheep and goat flocks: Antibody production and vaccination in a mouse model. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 119:198-203.

Maldonado LA, Hamid ME, Gamal El Din OA, Goodfellow M (2004) Nocardia farcinica--a significant cause of mastitis in goats in Sudan. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 75:147-149.

Marie C, Jacquin M, Aurel MR, Pailler F, Porte D, Autran P, Barillet F (1999) De´terminisme ge´ne´tique de la cine´tique Lacaune et relations phe´notypiques avec la morphologie de la mamelle. In: Barillet, F., Zervas, N.P. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Milking of Small Ruminants. Milking and Milk Production of Dairy Sheep and Goats, Athens, Greece. Wageningen Pers, Netherlands: pp. 381-388.

Mark T, Fikse WF, Emanuelson U, Philipsson J (2002) International Genetic Evaluations of Holstein Sires for Milk Somatic Cell and Clinical Mastitis. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2384-2392.

Marogna G, Rolesu S, Lollai S, Tola S, Leori G (2010) Clinical findings in sheep farms affected by recurrent bacterial mastitis. Small Ruminant Research 88:119-125.

Mavrogianni VS, Cripps PJ, Fthenakis GC (2007) Bacterial flora and risk of infection of the ovine teat duct and mammary gland throughout lactation. Prev. Vet. Med. 79:163-173.

Mavrogianni VS, Cripps PJ, Tzora A, Skoufos I, Fthenakis GC (2006) Effects of hand milking on the bacterial flora of mammary gland and teat duct of ewes. J. Dairy Res. 73:353-356.

Mavrogianni VS, Menzies PI, Fragkou IA, Fthenakis GC (2011) Principles of Mastitis Treatment in Sheep and Goats. Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice 27:115-120.

Mavrogianni VS, Papadopoulos E, Gougoulis DA, Gallidis E, Fragkou IA, Orfanou DC, Ptochos S, Fthenakis GC (2012) Pre-existing gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis predisposes ewes to clinical mastitis after experimental mammary infection. Proceedings of the 12th Greek Veterinary Congress (Athens, Greece).

Mavrogianni VS, Papadopoulos E, Spanos SA, Mitsoura A, Ptochos S, Gougoulis DA, Barbagianni M., Kyriazakis I, Fthenakis GC (2014) Trematode infections in pregnant ewes can predispose to mastitis during the subsequent lactation period. Res. Vet. Sci. 96:171-179.

McDougall S, Annis F (2005). Efficacy of antibiotic treatment at drying-off in curing existing infections and preventing new infections in dairy goats. In: Hogeveen, H. (Ed.), Mastitis in Dairy Production. Wageningen Academic Press Publishers, The Netherlands:pp. 523–528.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 G BRAMIS, AI GELASAKIS, E KIOSSIS, G BANOS, G ARSENOS

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.