Serum progesterone and oestrone sulphate concetrations for monitoring fertility in Sows


Blood samples were taken from 161 sows the days 19-21 (serum progesterone assessments), from 306 sows on days 24-30 (serum oestrone sulphate assessments) and from 150 sows on day 20 (serum progesterone assessments) and on days 26-29 (serum oestrone sulphate assessments) after service. Actual farrowing or abortion and signs of return to oestrus were used as criteria for pregnancy and non-pregnancy, respectively. Litter size was also recorded at each farrowing. The results showed that the overall accuracy of progesterone and oestrone sulphate for predicting pregnant sows was 90.7% and 97.2%, respectively. The highest accuracy of oestrone sulphate (100%) was noticed on days 27 and 28 after service. The overrall accuracy of the combination of both progesterone and oestrone sulphate assessments to detect pregnant sows was 97% and to detect non-pregnant sows was 100%. Significant correlation coefficients between serum oestrone sulphate concentration and litter size were found on days 24,26,27, 28,29 and 30, but the highest correlation coefficient was noticed on day 28 after service (r=0.51, Ρ, 0.001). Moreover, it was also found that mean litter size was significantly higher (P <0.05). in sows with serum oestrone sulphate concentrations > 1 ng/ml compared with concentrations < 1 ng/ml from day 26 up to day 30 after service. It is concluded that serum progesterone assessment helps in the determination of the non-pregnant sows early enough for problems related to failure of fertilization to be promptly dealt with. Serum oestrone sulphate concentration on day 28 after service can be used as an indicator of conception, as a predictor of small litter size and also can help in the estimation of embryonic mortality. The combination of these two assessments, in addition to their value in pregnancy diagnosis, can be useful in identifying concurrent reproductive problems in units with sub-optimal productivity.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Research Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Hughes Ρ, Varley M. Reproduction in the pig. Butterworth & Co Ltd. London, 1980.
Dial GD, Marsh WE, Poison DD, Vaillancourt J-P. Reproductive Failure: Differnetial Diagnosis. In: Diseases of swine, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1992:88-137.
Almond GW, Dial GD. Pregnancy diagnosis in swine: A comparison of the accuracies of mechanical and endocrine tests with return to oestrus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986, 189:1567-1571.
Glossop CE, Foulkes JA. Occurrence of two phases of return to oestrus in sows on commercial units. Vet Ree 1988, 122:163-164.
Meredith MJ. Pregnancy diagnosis in pigs. In Practice 1988, 10:3-8.
Meredith MJ. Pregnancy diagnosis in higher performance pig herds - is it a waste of resources? Pig News and Inf 1989, 10:477-480.
Benjaminsen E, Karlberg Κ. Pregnancy examination in the sow. A comparison of two types of ultrasound equipment and rectal examination. Nord Vet Med 1980,32:417-422.
Almond GW, Bosu WTK, King GJ. Pregnancy diagnosis in swine: a comparison of two ultrasound instruments. Can Vet J 1985,26:205-208.
Hatzidakis G, Katrakiki K, Krambovitis E. Development of a direct and specific enzyme-immunoassay for the measurement of oestrone sulphate in bovine milk. J Reprod Fert 1993, 98:235-240.
Hatzidakis G, Stefanakis A, Krambovitis E. Comparison of different antibody-conjugate derivatives for the development of a sensitive and specific progesterone assay. J Reprod Fert 1993,97:557-561.
Kourletaki-Belibasaki S, Stefanakis A, Vafiadis D, Hatzidakis G, Krambovitis E. Reproduction management in dairy cattle: A prospective study using progesterone and oestrone sulphate for monitoring pregnancy. Anim Sci 1995,60:177-183.
Robertson HA, King GJ. Plasma concentration of progesterone, oestrone, oestradiol-17a and oestrone sulphate in the pig at implantion, during pregnancy and at parturition. J Reprod Fert 1974,40:133-144.
Saba N, Huttersley JP. Direct estimation of oestrone sulphate in sow serum for a rapid pregnancy diagnosis test. J Reprod Fert 1981, 62:87-92.
Cunningham NF. Pregnancy diagnosis in sows based on serum oestrone sulphate concentration. Br Vet J 1982, 138:543-544.
Robertson HA, King GL, Dyck GW. The appearence of oestrone in the peripheral plasma of the pig in early pregnancy. J Reprod Fert 1978,52:337-338.
Guthrie HD, Deaver DR. Oestrone concentration in the peripheral plasma of pregnant and non-pregnant gilts. Theriogenology 1979,11:321-330.
Hattersley JP, Drane HM, Mutthews JG, Wrathal AE, Saba N. Estimation of oestrone sulphate in the serum of pregnant sows. J Reprod fert 1980,58:7-12.
Polge C, Rowson LEA, Chang MC. The effect of reducing the number of embryos during early stages of gestation on the maintenance of pregnancy in the pig. J Reprod Fert 1966, 12:395-397.
Cunningham NF, Hattersley JJP, Wrathall AE. Pregnancy diagnosis in sows based on serum oestrone sulphate concentration. Vet Ree 1983,113:229-233.
Sweeney HJ, Sutherland HR. Oestrone sulphate for pregnancy diagnosis in sows. Vet Ree 1987,121:23-24.
Heap RB, Flint APF, Gadsby JE, Rice C. Hormones, the early hormone and the uterine environment. J Reprod Fert 1979,55:267-275.
Home C, Chew ΒΡ, Wiseman BS, Dziuk PJ. Relationship between the level of oestrone sulphate in the plasma and the number of foetuses during pregnancy in the gilt. Biol Reprod 1983,29:56-62.
Most read articles by the same author(s)