| More

Bullying and victimization: Review of Greek research evidence

Views: 2964 Downloads: 1583
Konstantinos M Kokkinos, Kyriaki Karagianni
Konstantinos M Kokkinos, Kyriaki Karagianni

Abstract


The current review aims at providing an understanding of factors implicated in traditional and cyber-bullying/victimization (TB, TV, CB, CV). More specifically, the purpose of the present review is to critically analyze and synthesize empirical findings from Greek samples and organize them within the theoretical framework of General Aggression Model (GAM). According to the GAM, some person and situational factors based on pre-existing knowledge structures could lead to specific behavioral outcomes through cognitive, affective and arousal routes. The interplay among these routes reflecting the individual’s internal state may be associated with appraisal and decision- making processes which in turn may be linked to bullying or victimization experiences. Using the GAM as a theoretical framework, a synthetic review of past empirical research of person and situational factors related to TB/TV and CB/CV is presented. Socio-demographic (e.g., gender, age, academic achievement), personality factors (e.g., big five, psychopathic traits, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, sensation seeking, empathy), psychological states (e.g., depression), attachment style, online disinhibition, skills (e.g., social/internet), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., Specific Learning Difficulties), beliefs (e.g., low self-efficacy),  and values/perceptions (e.g., moral disengagement), (i.e. person factors), as well as specific parenting styles/practices, low friendship quality, and perceived school climate (i.e. situational factors) are proposed as risk factors of such experiences. Furthermore, possible mechanisms and processes (i.e. present internal state; cognition, affect, arousal), which may serve as routes for both TB/TV and CB/CV experiences are described. In this vein, Hostile Attribution Bias, Theory of Mind, expectation of reward and expectation of victim suffering (i.e. social cognition) are suggested as paths through which specific individual or situational factors could lead to bullying and victimization. The present review also focuses on appraisal and decision-making processes, and specifically on coping strategies, through which individual and situational factors, as well as present internal states, could be linked to bullying and victimization. Moreover, some possible psychological and behavioral consequences (e.g., low self-esteem, internalizing and externalizing problems, aggressive behaviors) of experiencing TB/TV and CB/CV are suggested. Overall, the present review provides indications that some person and situational factors, which in many cases are common in both physical contexts and cyberspace, could be associated through specific processes to TB/TV and CB/CV. However, there are some differentiations among the factors linked with TB/TV and CB/CV suggesting that these phenomena, although partially related, may not be similar. The factors and processes, which could lead to aggression, seem also to be in line with the GAM. However, some empirical findings attest that a cluster of person, cognitive and emotional factors, as well as appraisal processes might interact (e.g., personality, social cognition and coping factors) to predict specific behavioral outcomes such as bullying and aggressive behaviors. These interactive relationships are not currently considered by the GAM. Thus, the present review provides further insights into the strengths and the limitations of the aforementioned theoretical framework. In this direction, it underlines the need for reconsidering past theory and integrating several theoretical models, in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors and mechanisms implicated in bullying and victimization experiences. Some possible explanations about the proposed linkages are provided, while limitations and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

Keywords


traditional bullying; traditional victimization; cyber-bullying; cyber-victimization; General Aggression Model

References


Almeida, A., Correia, I., & Marinho, S. (2009). Moral disengagement, normative beliefs of peer group, and attitudes regarding roles in bullying. Journal of School Violence, 9, 23-36. DOI: 10.1080/15388220903185639

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Psychology, 53, 27–51. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135231

Anderson, C. A., & Carnagey, N. L. (2004). Violent evil and the general aggression model. In A. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of good and evil (pp. 168-192). New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

Andreou, E. (2000). Bully/victim problems and their association with psychological constructs in 8- to 12-year-old Greek schoolchildren. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 49-56. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(2000)26:1<49::AID-AB4>3.0.CO;2-M

Andreou, E. (2006). Social preference, perceived popularity and social intelligence relations to overt and relational aggression. School Psychology International, 27, 339-351. DOI: 10.1177/0143034306067286

Andreou, E., & Bonoti, F. (2010). Children’s bullying experiences expressed through drawings and self-reports. School Psychology International, 31, 164-177. DOI: 10.1177/0143034309352421

Andreou, E., Didaskalou, E., & Vlachou, A. (2013). Bully/victim problems among Greek pupils with special educational needs: associations with loneliness and self-efficacy for peer interactions. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 15, 235-246. DOI: 10.1111/1471-3802.12028

Andreou, E., & Metallidou, P. (2004). The relationship of academic and social cognition to behaviour in bullying situations among Greek primary school children. Educational Psychology, 24, 27-41. DOI: 10.1080/0144341032000146421

Andreou, E., Vlachou, A., & Didaskalou, E. (2005). The roles of self-efficacy, peer interactions and attitudes in bully-victim incidents. Implications for intervention policy-practices. School Psychology International, 26, 545-562. DOI: 10.1177/0143034305060789

Antoniadou, N., & Kokkinos, C. M. (2015). Cyber and school bullying: same or different phenomena? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 25, 363-372. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2015.09.013

Antoniadou, N., Kokkinos, C. M., & Markos, A. (2016). Possible common correlates between bullying and cyber-bullying among adolescents. Psicología Educativa, 22, 27-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.pse.2016.01.003

Αντωνιάδου, Ν., & Κόκκινος, Κ. Μ. (2013). Κυβερνο-εκφοβισμός και κυβερνο-θυματοποίηση σε παιδιά και εφήβους: Συχνότητα εμφάνισης και παράγοντες επικινδυνότητας. Προσχολική και Σχολική Εκπαίδευση, 1, 138-169. DOI: 10.12681/ppej.42

Athanasiades, C., Baldry, A. C., Kamariotis, T., Kostouli, M., & Psalti, A. (2016). The “net” of the internet: Risk factors for cyberbullying among secondary-school students in Greece. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 22, 301–317. DOI: 10.1007/s10610-016-9303-4

Athanasiades, C., & Deliyanni Kouimtzis, V. (2010). The experience of bullying among secondary school students. Psychology in the Schools, 47, 328-341. DOI: 10.1002/pits.20473

Athanasiades, C., Kamariotis, H., Psalti, A., Baldry, A. C., & Sorrentino, A. (2015). Internet use and cyberbullying among adolescent students in Greece: the “Tabby” project. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 12, 14-39. Retrieved from http://www.pseve.org/journal/UPLOAD/Athanasiades12-1.pdf

Austin, E. J., Saklofske, D. H., & Egan, V. (2005). Personality, well-being and health correlates of trait emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Difference, 38, 547–558. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.05.009

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Barlett, C. P., & Anderson, C. A. (2012). Direct and indirect relations between the Big 5 personality traits and aggressive and violent behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 870-875. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.01.029

Baroncelli, A., & Ciucci, E. (2014). Unique effects of different components of trait emotional intelligence in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 807-815. DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.05.009

Basharpoor, S., Molavi, P., Barahmand, U., & Mousavi, S. A. (2013). The relationship between behavioral activation/inhibition systems (BAS/BIS) and bullying/victimization behaviors among male adolescents. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 8, 118-123. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3887228/pdf/IJPS-8-118.pdf

Beran, T., & Li, Q. (2008).The relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying. The Journal of Student Wellbeing, 1, 16-33. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.586.7345&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Berger, K. S. (2007). Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten? Developmental Review, 27, 90-126. DOI: 10.1016/j.dr.2006.08.002

Bernstein, J. Y., & Watson, M. W. (1997). Children who are targets of bullying. A victim pattern. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 483–498. DOI: 10.1177/088626097012004001

Bibou-Nakou, I., Tsiantis, J., Assimopoulos, H., Chatzilambou, P., & Giannakopoulou, D. (2012). School factors related to bullying: a qualitative study of early adolescent students. Social Psychology of Education, 15, 125-145. DOI: 10.1007/s11218-012-9179-1

Book, A. S., Volk, A. A., & Hosker, A. (2012). Adolescent bullying and personality: An adaptive approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 218-223. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.10.028

Bosacki, S. L. (2013). Theory of mind understanding and conversational patterns in middle childhood. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 174, 170-191. DOI: 10.1080/00221325.2012.659233

Bosco, F. M., Gabbatore, I., & Tirassa, M. (2014). A broad assessment of theory of mind in adolescence: The complexity of mindreading. Consciousness and Cognition, 24, 84-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2014.01.003

Boulton, M. J., Karellou, I., Lanitis, I., Manoussou, V., & Lemoni, O. (2001). Bullying and victimisation in Greek primary school pupils. Psychology: The Journal of the Hellenic Psychological Society, 8, 12-29. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2001-01287-002

Bowers, L., Smith, P. K., & Binney, V. (1992).Cohesion and power in the families of children involved in bully/victim problems at school. Journal of Family Therapy, 14, 371–387. DOI: 10.1046/j..1992.00467.x

Bushman, B. J. (2016). Violent media and hostile appraisals: A meta analytic review. Aggressive Behavior, 42, 605–613. DOI: 10.1002/ab.21655

Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C, A. (2001). Is it time to pull the plug on hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy? Psychological Review, 108, 273–279. DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.108.1.273

Camodeca, M., & Goossens, F. A. (2005). Children's opinions on effective strategies to cope with bullying: The importance of bullying role and perspective. Educational Research, 47, 93-105. DOI: 10.1080/0013188042000337587

Camodeca, M., Goossens, F. A., Schuengel, C., & Meerum Terwogt, M. (2003). Links between social information processing in middle childhood and involvement in bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 116–127. DOI: 10.1002/ab.10043

Campbell, J. C. (2002). Health consequences of intimate partner violence. Lancet, 359, 331–336. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08336-8

Card, N. A., & Little, T. D. (2006). Proactive and reactive aggression in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis of differential relations with psychosocial adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 466–480. DOI: 10.1177/0165025406071904

Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta‐analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 1185-1229. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x.

Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–484. DOI: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1202_01

Cavalcanti, J. G., & Pimentel, C. E. (2016). Personality and aggression: A contribution of the General Aggression Model. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas), 33, 443-451. DOI: 10.1590/1982-02752016000300008

Ciarrochi, J. V., Chan, A. Y. C., & Bajgar, J. (2001). Measuring emotional intelligence in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 1105–1119. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00207-5

Connor-Smith, J. K., & Flachsbart, C. (2007). Relations between personality and coping: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 1080–1107. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.6.1080

Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74–101. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74

Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1995). Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment. Child Development, 66, 710–722. DOI: 10.2307/1131945

Del Barrio, V., Aluja, A., & García, L. F. (2004). Bryant's empathy index for children and adolescents: Psychometric properties in the Spanish language. Psychological Reports, 95, 257-262. DOI: 10.2466/PR0.95.5.257-262

DeWall, C. N., Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2011). The general aggression model: theoretical extensions to violence. Psychology of Violence, 1, 245-258. DOI: 10.1037/a0023842

Didaskalou, E., Roussi–Vergou, C. J., & Andreou, E. (2015). Greek adolescents' victimization experiences, reactions, ability to cope and sense of school safety. American Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 41-51. Retrieved from http://www.openscienceonline.com/journal/ajpbs

Duffy, A. L. (2004). Bullying in schools: A social identity perspective (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland.

Duncan, R. D. (2004). The impact of family relationships on school bullies and their victims. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools: A socialecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 227–244). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ehrler, D. J., Evans, J. G., & McGhee, R. L. (1999). Extending Big-Five theory into childhood: A preliminary investigation into the relationship between Big-Five personality traits and behaviour problems in children. Psychology in the Schools, 36, 451–458. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6807(199911)36:6<451::AID-PITS1>3.0.CO;2-E

Ettekal, I., Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., & Ladd, G. W. (2015). A synthesis of person-and relational-level factors that influence bullying and bystanding behaviors: Toward an integrative framework. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 75-86.

Fanti, K. A., Demetriou, A. G., & Hawa, V. V. (2012). A longitudinal study of cyberbullying: Examining risk and protective factors. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 168-181. DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2011.643169

Ferguson, C. J., & Dyck, D. (2012). Paradigm change in aggression research: The time has come to retire the General Aggression Model. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2012.02.007

Floros, G. D., Siomos, K. E., Fisoun, V., Dafouli, E., & Geroukalis, D. (2013). Adolescent online cyberbullying in Greece: The impact of parental online security practices, bonding, and online impulsiveness. Journal of School Health, 83, 445-453. DOI: 10.1111/josh.12049

Galanaki, E. P., Polychronopoulou, S. A., & Babalis, T. K. (2008). Loneliness and social dissatisfaction among behaviourally at-risk children. School Psychology International, 29, 214-229. DOI: 10.1177/0143034308090061

Galanaki, E. P., & Vassilopoulou, H. D. (2007). Teachers and children’s loneliness: A review of the literature and educational implications. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 22, 455-475. DOI: 10.1007/BF03173466

Gilbert, F., & Daffern, M. (2011). Illuminating the relationship between personality disorder and violence: Contributions of the General Aggression Model. Psychology of Violence, 1, 230-244.

Gini, G., Pozzoli, T., & Hauser, M. (2011). Bullies have enhanced moral competence to judge relative to victims, but lack moral compassion. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 603-608. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.12.002

Giovazolias, T., Kourkoutas, E., Mitsopoulou, E., & Georgiadi, M. (2010). The relationship between perceived school climate and the prevalence of bullying behavior in Greek schools: Implications for preventive inclusive strategies. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 2208-2215. DOI: 10.1016 /j.sbspro.2010.07.437

Godleski, S. A., & Ostrov, J. M. (2010). Relational aggression and hostile attribution biases: Testing multiple statistical methods and models. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 447-458. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-010-9391-4

Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266. DOI: 10.1016/0005-7967(70)90069-0.

Griffin, R. S., & Gross, M. A. (2004). Childhood bullying: Current empirical findings and future directions for research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 9, 379–400. DOI: 10.1016/S1359-1789(03)00033-8

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Hessels, C., van den Hanenberg, D., de Castro, B. O., & van Aken, M. A. (2014). Relationships: Empirical contribution. Understanding personality pathology in adolescents: The Five Factor Model of Personality and Social Information Processing. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28, 121-142. DOI: 10.1521/pedi.2014.28.1.121

Hogan, R. (1969). Development of an empathy scale. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 33, 307–316. DOI: 10.1037/h0027580

Huesmann, L. R. (1998). The role of social information processing and cognitive schema in the acquisition and maintenance of habitual aggressive behavior. In R. G. Geen, & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression: Theories, research, and implications for social policy. London, UK: Academic Press Ltd.

Jensen-Campbell, L. A., & Malcolm, K. T. (2007). The importance of conscientiousness in adolescent interpersonal relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 368-383. DOI: 10.1177/0146167206296104

Καλάτη, Β. (2014). Κοινωνικός εκφοβισμός και οι φιλικές σχέσεις παιδιών και εφήβων: Διαστάσεις φύλου και εθνο-πολιτισμικής προέλευσης (Διδακτορική Διατριβή). Ανακτήθηκε από Ιδρυματικό Καταθετήριο Επιστημονικών Εργασιών. (GRI-2015-13736).

Kalati, V., Psalti A., & Deliyianni-Kouimtzi V. (2010). Greek Students’ Perception of School Bullying: The Profiles of Victims and Perpetrators. In K.P. Vanhoutte & M. Lang (Eds.), Bullying and the Abuse of Power (pp. 91-98). Oxford, UK: Inter-Disciplinary Press.

Kanetsuna, T., & Smith, P. K. (2002). Pupil insights into bullying, and coping with bullying: A bi-national study in Japan and England. Journal of School Violence, 1, 5-29. DOI: 10.1300/J202v01n03_02

Katzer, C., Fetchenhauer, D., & Belschak, F. (2009). Cyberbullying in chatrooms- Who are the victims? Journal of Media Psychology, 21, 25-36. DOI: 10.1027/1864-1105.21.1.25

Kaukiainen, A., Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Tamminen, M., Vauras, M., Mäki, H., & Poskiparta, E. (2002). Learning difficulties, social intelligence, and self–concept: Connections to bully–victim problems. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, 269-278. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9450.00295

Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1996). Social skill deficits and learning disabilities: A meta-analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 226-237. DOI: 10.1177/002221949602900301

Kawabata, Y., Crick, N. R., & Hamaguchi, Y. (2013). The association of relational and physical victimization with hostile attribution bias, emotional distress, and depressive symptoms: A cross‐cultural study. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 260-270. DOI: 10.1111/ajsp.12030

Kirsh, S. J. (2003). The effects of violent video games on adolescents: The overlooked influence of development. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 8, 377-389. DOI: 10.1016/S1359-1789(02)00056-3

Klimstra, T. A., Crocetti, E., Hale III, W. W., Fermani, A., & Meeus, W. H. (2011). Big Five personality dimensions in Italian and Dutch adolescents: A cross-cultural comparison of mean-levels, sex differences, and associations with internalizing symptoms. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 285-296. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2011.03.002

Ko, C., Yen, J., Liu, S., Huang, C., & Yen, C. F. (2009). The associations between aggressive behaviors, Internet addiction and online activities in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44, 98-605. DOI: 10.1016 /j.jadohealth.2008.11.011

Kokkinos, C. M. (2007). Elementary school children’s involvement in bullying and victimization: The role of attachment style and internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Scientia Peadagogica Experimentalis, XLIV, 1, 33–49. Retrieved from http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=20609032

Kokkinos, C. M. (2013). Bullying and victimization in early adolescence: Associations with attachment style and perceived parenting. Journal of School Violence, 12, 174-192. DOI: 10.1080/15388220.2013.766134

Kokkinos, C. M., & Antoniadou, N. (2013). Bullying and victimization experiences in elementary school students nominated by their teachers for specific learning disabilities. School Psychology International, 34, 674-690. DOI: 10.1177/0143034313479712

Kokkinos, C. M., Antoniadou, N., Asdre, A., & Voulgaridou, K. (2016). Parenting and Internet behavior predictors of cyber-bullying and cyber-victimization among preadolescents. Deviant Behavior, 37, 439-455. DOI: 10.1080/01639625.2015.1060087

Kokkinos, C. M., Antoniadou, N., Dalara, E., Koufogazou, A., & Papatziki, A. (2013). Cyber-bullying, personality and coping among pre-adolescents. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 3, 55-69. DOI: 10.4018/ijcbpl.2013100104

Kokkinos, C. M., Antoniadou, N., & Markos, A. (2014). Cyber-bullying: An investigation of the psychological profile of University student participants. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 204-214. DOI: 10.1016/ j.appdev.2014.04.001

Kokkinos, C. M., Baltzidis, E., & Xynogala, D. (2016). Prevalence and personality correlates of Facebook bullying among university undergraduates. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 840-850. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.10.017

Κόκκινος, Κ. Μ., Βουλγαρίδου, Ι., & Κουκούτσης, Ν. (2014). Εκφοβισμός, προσωπικότητα και δεσμός προσκόλλησης σε προέφηβους μαθητές. Προσχολική και Σχολική Εκπαίδευση, 3, 1-27. DOI: 10.12681/ppej.135

Kokkinos, C. M., Karagianni, K., & Voulgaridou, I. (2016). Relational aggression, big five and hostile attribution bias in Adolescents. Paper submitted for publication.

Kokkinos, C. M., & Kipritsi, E. (2012). The relationship between bullying, victimization, trait emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and empathy among preadolescents. Social Psychology of Education, 15, 41-58. 10.1007/s11218-011-9168-9

Kokkinos, C. M., Panagopoulou, P., Tsolakidou, I., & Tzeliou, E. (2015). Coping with bullying and victimisation among preadolescents: the moderating effects of self-efficacy. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 20, 205-222. DOI: 10.1080/13632752.2014.955677

Kokkinos, C. M., & Panayiotou, G. (2004). Predicting bullying and victimization among early adolescents: Associations with disruptive behavior disorders. Aggressive Behavior, 30,520-533. DOI: 10.1002/ab.20055

Kokkinos, C. M., & Panayiotou, G. (2007). Parental discipline practices and locus of control: Relationship to bullying and victimization experiences of elementary school students. Social Psychology of Education, 10, 281–301. DOI: 10.1007/s11218-007-9021-3

Kokkinos, C. M., & Voulgaridou, I. (2016a). Links between relational aggression, parenting and personality among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2016.1194265

Kokkinos, C. M., Voulgaridou, I. (2016b). Relational victimization, callous-unemotional traits and hostile attribution bias among pre-adolescents. Journal of School Violence. Advance online publication. DOI: 10.1080/15388220.2016.1222500

Kokkinos, C. M., & Voulgaridou, I. (2016c). Relational and cyber aggression among adolescents: Personality and emotion regulation as moderators. Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 528-537. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.11.046

Kokkinos, C. M., Voulgaridou, I. P., Koukoutsis, N. D., & Markos, A. (2016). Peer victimization and depression in Greek preadolescents: Personality and attachment as moderators. Personal Relationships, 23, 280-295. DOI: 10.1111/pere.12126

Kokkinos, C. M., Voulgaridou, I., Mandrali, M., & Parousidou, C. (2016). Interactive links between relational aggression, theory of mind, and moral disengagement among early adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 53, 253-269. DOI: 10.1002/pits.21902

Kokkinos, C. M., Voulgaridou, I., & Markos, A. (2016). Personality and relational aggression: Moral disengagement and friendship quality as mediators. Personality and Individual Differences, 95, 74-79. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.028

Kowalski, R. M., Giumetti, G. W., Schroeder, A. N., & Lattanner, M. R. (2014). Bullying in the digital age: A critical review and meta-analysis of cyberbullying research among youth. Psychological Βulletin, 140, 1073-1137. DOI: 10.1037/a0035618

Kronenberger, W. G., & Meyer, R. G. (1996). The Child Clinician’s Handbook. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Lagerspetz, K. M., Björkqvist, K., Berts, M., & King, E. (1982) .Group aggression among school children in three schools. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 23, 45-52. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.1982.tb00412.x

Larke, I. D., & Beran, T. N. (2006). The relationship between bullying and social skills in primary school students. Issues in Educational Research, 16, 1-11. Retrieved from http://www.iier.org.au/iier16/larke.html

Lazuras, L., Barkoukis, V., Ourda, D., & Tsorbatzoudis, H. (2013). A process model of cyberbullying in adolescence. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 881–887. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.015

Lazuras, L., & Ourda, D. (2012). Cyberbullying in adolescence. A social-cognitive study. In L. Lazuras & V. Barkoukis (Eds.), Cyber-bullying in Greece: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 41–44). Thessaloniki, Greece: City Publish.

Livingstone, S., Haddon, L., Görzig, A., & Ólafsson, K. (2010). Risks and safety on the internet: the perspective of European children: key findings from the EU Kids Online survey of 9-16 year olds and their parents in 25 countries. Full findings. LSE, London: EU Kids Online. Retrieved from http://www.lse.ac.uk/media%40lse/research/EUKidsOnline/EU%20Kids%20II%20(2009-11)/EUKidsOnlineIIReports/D4FullFindings.pdf

Luty, S. E., Joyce, P. R., Mulder, R. T., Sullivan, P. F., & McKenzie, J. M. (2002). The interpersonal sensitivity measure in depression: Associations with temperament and character. Journal of Affective Disorders, 70, 307-312. DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00312-3

Makri-Botsari, E., & Karagianni, G. (2014). Cyberbullying in Greek adolescents: The role of parents. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 3241-3253. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.742

Marsee, M. A., & Frick, P. J. (2007). Exploring the cognitive and emotional correlates to proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of detained girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 969-981. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-007-9147-y

Martín-Albo, J., Núñez, J. L., Navarro, J. G., & Grijalvo, F. (2007). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: translation and validation in university students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10, 458-467. DOI: 10.1017/S1138741600006727

Mathieson, L. C., Murray-Close, D., Crick, N. R., Woods, K. E., Zimmer-Gembeck, M., Geiger, T. C., & Morales, J. R. (2011). Hostile intent attributions and relational aggression: The moderating roles of emotional sensitivity, gender, and victimization. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 977-987. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-011-9515-5

Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K. V., Sangareau, Y., & Furnham, A. (2009). Exploring the relationships between trait emotional intelligence and objective socio-emotional outcomes in childhood. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 259–272. DOI: 10.1348/000709908X368848

Mehrabian, A., & Epstein, N. (1972). A measure of emotional empathy. Journal of Personality, 40, 525–543. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1972.tb00078.x

Miller, J. D., Lynam, D. R., & Jones, S. (2008). Externalizing behavior through the lens of the five-factor model: A focus on agreeableness and conscientiousness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 158-164. DOI: 10.1080/ 00223890701845245

Mitsopoulou, E., & Giovazolias, T. (2013). The relationship between perceived parental bonding and bullying: The mediating role of empathy. The European Journal of Counselling Psychology, 2, 1-16. DOI: 10.5964/ejcop.v2i1.2

Mitsopoulou, E., & Giovazolias, T. (2015). Personality traits, empathy and bullying behavior: A meta-analytic approach. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 21, 61-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2015.01.007

Monks, C. P., Smith, P. K., Naylor, P., Barter, C., Ireland, J. L., & Coyne, I. (2009). Bullying in different contexts: Commonalities, differences and the role of theory. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14, 146-156. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2009.01.004

Muris, P. (2001). A brief questionnaire for measuring self-efficacy in youths. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 145–149. DOI: 10.1023/A:1010961119608

Muris, P., Meesters, C., De Kanter, E., & Timmerman, P.E. (2005). Behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation system scales for children: Relationships with Eysenck's personality traits and psychopathological symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 831–841. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.06.007

Muris, P., Meesters, C., van Melick, M., & Zwambag, L. (2001). Self-reported attachment style, attachment quality, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 809-818. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00074-X

Murray-Close, D., Crick, R. N., & Galotti, M. K. (2006). Children’s moral reasoning regarding physical and relational aggression. Social Development, 15, 345-372. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2006.00346.x

Murray-Close, D., Ostrov, J. M., Nelson, D. A., Crick, N. R., & Coccaro, E. F. (2010). Proactive, reactive, and romantic relational aggression in adulthood: Measurement, predictive validity, gender differences, and association with Intermittent Explosive Disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44, 393-404. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.09.005

Mynard, H., & Joseph, S. (1997). Bully/victim problems and their association with Eysenck's personality dimensions in 8 to 13 year-olds. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 51-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.1997.tb01226.x

Nabuzoka, D. (2000). Children with learning disabilities: Social functioning and adjustment. Leicester: BPS Blackwell.

Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M. D., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. C. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094–2100. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles /PMC2435211/pdf/nihms53619.pdf

Nelson, D. A., Mitchell, C., & Yang, C. (2008). Intent attributions and aggression: A study of children and their parents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 793-806. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-007-9211-7

Nelson, J. A., & Perry, N. B. (2015). Emotional reactivity, self-control and children's hostile attributions over middle childhood. Cognition and Emotion, 29, 592-603. DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2014.924906

Olweus, D. (2010). Understanding and researching bullying: Some critical issues. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools. New York, NY: Routhledge.

Orobio de Castro, B., Veerman, J. W., Koops, W., Bosch, J. D., & Monshouwer, H. J. (2002). Hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 73, 916-934. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00447

Ostrov, J. M., & Godleski, S. A. (2013). Relational aggression, victimization, and adjustment during middle childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 801-815. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579413000187

Pabian, S., & Vandebosch, H. (2016). Developmental trajectories of (cyber) bullying perpetration and social intelligence during early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 36, 145-170. DOI: 10.1177/0272431614556891

Paciello, M., Fida, R., Tramontano, C., Lupinetti, C., & Caprara G. V. (2008). Stability and change of moral disengagement and its impact on aggression and violence in late adolescence. Child Development, 79, 1288-1309. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01189.x

Panayiotou, G., Fanti, K. A., & Lazarou, C. (2015). Fearful victims and fearless bullies? Subjective reactions to emotional imagery scenes of children involved in school aggression. Personality and Individual Differences, 78, 29-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.011

Papadaki, E., & Giovazolias, T. (2015). The protective role of father acceptance in the relationship between maternal rejection and bullying: A moderated-mediation model. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 330-340. DOI: 10.1007/s10826-013-9839-6

Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29, 611–621. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.29.4.611

Pastorelli, C., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Rola, J., Rozsa, S., & Bandura, A. (2001). The structure of children's perceived self-efficacy: A cross-national study. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 17, 87-97. DOI: 10.1027//1015-5759.17.2.87

Pateraki, L., & Houndoumadi, A. (2001). Bullying among primary school children in Athens, Greece. Educational Psychology, 21, 167-175. DOI: 10.1080/ 01443410020043869.

Pornari, C. D., & Wood, J. (2010). Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students: The role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 81-94. DOI: 10.1002/ab.20336

Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have theory of mind? Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 1, 515-526. DOI: 10.1017 /S0140525X00076512

Pronk, R. E., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2010). It's “mean,” but what does it mean to adolescents? Relational aggression described by victims, aggressors, and their peers. Journal of Adolescent Research, 25, 175–204. DOI: 10.1177 /0743558409350504

Przybylski, A. K., Deci, E. L., Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2014). Competence-impeding electronic games and players’ aggressive feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 441-457. DOI: 10.1037/a0034820

Ribeiro, L. L. (2009). Construction and validation of a four Parenting Styles Scale (Unpublished Master thesis). Humboldt State University, Arcata.

Rigby, K. (2008). Σχολικός Εκφοβισμός. Σύγχρονες απόψεις [Α. Γιοβαζολιάς (Επιμ.), Β. Δόμπολα (Μτφρ.)]. Αθήνα: Τόπος.

Rigby, K., & Slee, P. (1993). Dimensions of interpersonal relating among Australian school children: Implications for psychological well-being. Journal of Social Psychology, 131, 615–627. DOI: 10.1080/00224545.1993.9712116

Roose, A., Bijttebier, P., Claes, L., Lilienfeld, S. O., De Fruyt, F., & Decuyper, M. (2012). Psychopathic traits in adolescence and the five factor model of personality. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 34, 84-93. DOI: 10.1007/s10862-011-9243-8

Σακκά, Δ., & Μάρκος, Ά. (2013). Από την πλευρά των εφήβων: Η βία και η επιθετικότητα στο σχολείο σε σχέση µε την εθνοπολιτισµική προέλευση και το φύλο. Στο Β. Δεληγιάννη-Κουϊµτζή, Ε. Γωνίδα, Ε. Φίγγου, Α. Μπάκα & Δ. Μωραϊτου (Επιµ.), Επιστηµονική Επετηρίδα της Φιλοσοφικής Σχολής, Τµήµα Ψυχολογίας, Τόµος Ι (σσ. 127 – 162). Θεσσαλονίκη: Υπηρεσία Δηµοσιευµάτων Αριστοτελείου Πανεπιστηµίου Θεσσαλονίκης.

Salmivalli, C. (2004). Consequences of school bullying and violence. In E. Munthe, E. Solli, E. YtreArne & E. Roland (Eds.), Taking fear out of schools (pp. 29–35). Stavanger, Norway: University of Stavanger.

Salmivalli, C. (2014). Participant roles in bullying: How can peer bystanders be utilized in interventions? Theory Into Practice, 53, 286-292. DOI: 10.1080 /00405841.2014.947222

Salmivalli, C., Kaukiainen, A., & Lagerspetz, K. (2000). Aggression and sociometric status among peers: Do gender and type of aggression matter? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 41, 17-24. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9450.00166

Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Bjorkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant role and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1–15. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1996)22:1<1::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-T

Salmivalli, C., Ojanen, T., Haanpää, J., & Peets, K. (2005)." I'm OK but you're not" and other peer-relational schemas: explaining individual differences in children's social goals. Developmental Psychology, 41, 363-375. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.41.2.363

Sapouna, M. (2008). Bullying in Greek primary and secondary schools. School Psychology International, 29, 199-213. DOI: 10.1177/0143034308090060

Sapouna, M. (2009). Collective efficacy in the school context: Does it help explain victimization and bullying among Greek primary and secondary school students? Journal of Ιnterpersonal Violence, 25, 1912–1927. DOI: 10.1177/0886260509354509

Schouten, A. P., Valkenburg P. M., & Jochen, P. (2007). Precursors and underlying processes of adolescents' online self-disclosure: Developing and testing an “Internet-Attribute-Perception” Model. Media Psychology, 10, 292-315. DOI: 10.1080/15213260701375686

Schultze-Krumbholz, A., & Scheithauer, H. (2009). Social-behavioral correlates of cyberbullying in a German student sample. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217, 224-226. DOI: 10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.224

Schwartz, D. (2000). Subtypes of victims and aggressors in children’s peer groups. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 181–192. DOI: 10.1023/A:1005174831561

Skapinakis, P., Bellos, S., Gkatsa, T., Magklara, K., Lewis, G., Araya, R., & Mavreas, V. (2011). The association between bullying and early stages of suicidal ideation in late adolescents in Greece. BMC Psychiatry, 11, 11-22. DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-11-22

Skinner, E. A., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2007). The development of coping. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 119–144. DOI: 10.1146/ annurev.psych.58.110405.085705

Smack, A. J., Kushner, S. C., & Tackett, J. L. (2015). Child personality moderates associations between parenting and relational and physical aggression. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 24, 845-862. DOI: 10.1080 /10926771.2015.1062450

Smith, P. K. (2004). Bullying: Recent developments. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 9, 98-103. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2004.00089.x

Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 49, 376–385. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01846.x

Smith, P. K., & Myron-Wilson, R. (1998). Parenting and school bullying. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 3, 405–411. DOI: 10.1177/1359104598033006

Sontag, L. M., Clemans, K. H., Graber, J. A., & Lyndon, S. T. (2011). Traditional and cyber aggressors and victims: a comparison of psychosocial characteristics. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 392-404. DOI: 10.1007/s10964-010-9575-9

Sroufe, L. A. (2005). Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 349-367. DOI: 10.1080/14616730500365928

Stevens, V., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Van Oost, P. (2002).Relationship of the family environment to children’s involvement in bully/victim problems at school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 419–428. DOI: 10.1023/ A:1020207003027

Suldo, S. M., McMahan, M. M., Chappel, A. M., & Loker, T. (2012). Relationships between perceived school climate and adolescent mental health across genders. School Mental Health, 4, 69-80. DOI: 10.1007/s12310-012-9073-1

Suler, J. (2004). The online disinhibition effect. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 7, 321–326. DOI: 10.1089/1094931041291295

Sutton, J., Smith, P. K., & Swettenham, J. (1999). Bullying and ‘theory of mind’: A critique of the social skills deficit view of anti-social behavior. Social Development, 8, 117-127. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9507.00083

Tani, F., Freenman, P. S., Schneider, B. H., & Fregoso, M. (2003). Bullying and the Big Five: a study of childhood personality and participant roles in bullying incidents. School Psychology International, 24, 131-146. DOI: 10.1177/ 0143034303024002001

Toblin, R. L., Schwartz, D., Gorman, A. H., & Abou-Ezzeddine, T. (2005). Social-cognitive and behavioral attributes of aggressive victims of bullying. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 329–346. DOI: 10.1016/ j.appdev.2005.02.004

Todorov, A., & Bargh, J. A. (2002). Automatic sources of aggression. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7, 53-68. DOI: 10.1016/S1359-1789(00)00036-7

Τουλούπης, Τ., & Αθανασιάδου, Χ. (2014). Η ριψοκίνδυνη χρήση της νέας τεχνολογίας μεταξύ μαθητών/τριών πρωτοβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης: Εθισμός στο διαδίκτυο και ηλεκτρονικός εκφοβισμός. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 11, 83-110.

Valcke, M., Bonte, S., De Wever, B., & Rots, I. (2010). Internet parenting styles and the impact on Internet use of primary school children. Computers & Education, 55, 454-464. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2010.02.009

van Baardewijk, Y., Stegge, H., Andershed, H., Thomaes, S., Scholte, E., & Vermeiren, R. (2008). Measuring psychopathic traits in children through self-report. The development of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory—Child Version. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31, 199-209. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2008.04.004

Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K. (2009). Cyberbullying among youngsters: Profiles of bullies and victims. New Media & Society, 11, 1349-1371. DOI: 10.1177/1461444809341263

Vanderbilt, D., & Augustyn, M. (2010). The effects of bullying. Paediatrics and Child Health, 20, 315-320. DOI: 10.1016/j.paed.2010.03.008

van Noorden, T. H., Haselager, G. J., Cillessen, A. H., & Bukowski, W. M. (2015). Empathy and involvement in bullying in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44, 637-657. DOI: 10.1007/s10964-014-0135-6

Vannucci, M., Nocentini, A., Mazzoni, G., & Menesini, E. (2012). Recalling unpresented hostile words: False memories predictors of traditional and cyberbullying. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 182–194. DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2011.646459

Voulgaridou, I., & Kokkinos, C. M. (2015). Relational aggression in adolescents: A review of theoretical and empirical research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 23, 87-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2015.05.006

Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., & Nansel, T. R. (2009). School bullying among adolescents in the United States: Physical, verbal, relational, and cyber. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 368-375. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.03.021

Waters, E., & Cummings, M. (2000). A secure base from which to explore close relationships. Child Development, 71, 164–172. DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00130

Wolak, J., Mitchell, K., & Finkelhor, D. (2007). Does online harassment constitute bullying? An exploration of online harassment by known peers & online-only contacts. Special Issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 51–58. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.019

Wong, Y. C. (2010). Cyber-parenting: Internet benefits, risks and parenting issues. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 28, 252-273. DOI: 10.1080/ 15228835.2011.562629

Yeung, R. S., & Leadbeater, B. J. (2007). Does hostile attributional bias for relational provocations mediate the short-term association between relational victimization and aggression in preadolescence? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 973-983. DOI: 10.1007/s10964-006-9162-2

Ψάλτη, Α., & Κωνσταντίνου, Κ. (2007). Το φαινόμενο του εκφοβισμού στα σχολεία της δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης: Η επίδραση φύλου και εθνο-πολιτισμικής προέλευσης. Ψυχολογία, 14, 329-345.

Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. New York, NY: Cambridge Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.