| More


Views: 161 Downloads: 131
I. Rigopoulos, B. Tsikoura, P. Pomonis, S. Karipi, K. Hatzipanagiotou
I. Rigopoulos, B. Tsikoura, P. Pomonis, S. Karipi, K. Hatzipanagiotou


This study focuses on the quantification of asbestiform minerals in basic and ultrabasic rocks from ophiolite suites of central and northern Greece. A combination of different methods were used for the detailed investigation of the samples, conducted in the following stages: (i) petrographic examination of thin sections with a polarizing microscope, (ii) mineral phase analysis using X-ray diffraction, (iii) determination of the fibrous mineral composition on polished thin sections using scanning electron microscopy, (iv) image analysis of back scattered electron images and secondary electron images, to quantify the dangerous asbestiform crystals. SEM is proved to be the most powerful tool for the detailed investigation of fibrous minerals, although polarized microscopy and XRD are necessary tools for a preliminary identification of these minerals. Basic rocks contain various amounts of actinolite, however not all crystals comprise asbestiform fibres. A conspicuous feature observed during careful petrographic analysis is that many of the non as best form actinolite crystals are broken up along their cleavage planes. Rocks with such features need specific consideration since these crystals may subsequently release numerous fibrous cleavage fragments during the production processes and in-service deterioration of aggregates. Among the serpentinized ultrabasic samples, only one contains chrysotile, while the other samples contain antigorite and lizardite.


asbestos; image analysis; ophiolitic rocks; petrography; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray diffraction;

Full Text:



Addison, J., and Davies, L.S.T., 1990. Analysis of amphibole asbestos in chrysotile and other minerals.

(5) XLIII, No 5 – 2723

Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 34, 159-175.

Bebien, J., 1982. L’ association ignee de Guevgueli (Macedoine Greque). Expression d’ un magmatisme

ophiolitique dans une dechirure continentale. These d’ Etat, Univ. Nancy 467pp.

Clinkenbeard, J.P., Churchill, R.K., and Lee, K., 2002. Guidelines for geologic investigations of naturally

occurring asbestos in California. California Department of Conservation, California Geological Survey

Special Publication 124.

Constantopoulos, S.H., 2008. Environmental mesothelioma associated with tremolite asbestos: Lessons

from the experiences of Turkey, Greece, Corsica, New Caledonia and Cyprus. Regulatory Toxicology

and Pharmacology, 52(1), 110-115.

Ivanov, T., Misar, Z., Bowes, D.R., Dudek, A., Dumurdzanov, N., Jaros, J., Jelinek, E., and Pacesova, M.,

The Demir Kapija-Gevgelija ophiolite massif, Macedonia, Yugolsavia. Ophioliti, 12, 457-478.

Jones, G., Robertson, A.H.F., and Cann, J.R., 1991. Genesis and emplacement of the supra-subduction

zone Pindos ophiolite, northwestern Greece. In: Tj Peters et al. (Eds), Ophiolite Genesis and Evolution

of the Oceanic Lithosphere, 771-799.

Leake, B.E., Wooley, A.R., Arps, C.E.S., Birch, W.D., Gilbert, M.C., Grice, J.D., Hawthorne, F.C., Kato,

A., Kisch, H.J., Krivovichev, V.G., Linthout, K., Laird, J., Mandarino, J., Maresch, W.V., Nickel,

E.H., Rock, N.M.S., Scumacher, J.C., Smith, D.C., Stephenson, N.C.N., Ungaretti, L., Whittaker,

E.J.W., and Youzhi, G., 1997. Nomenclature of amphiboles; report of the Subcommittee on amphiboles

of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral

Names. American Mineralogist, 82, 1019-1037.

Mercier, J.L., 1966. Sur l’existence et l’age de deux phases regionales du metamorphism alpin dans les

zones internes des Hellenides en Macedoine centrale (Grece). Bull. Soc. Geol. France, 8, 1020-1049.

Mossman, B.T., Bignon, J., Corn, M., Seaton, A., and Gee, J.B.L., 1990. Asbestos: scientific developments

and implications for public policy. Science, 247, 294-301.

Murray, J., and Nelson, G., 2008. Health effects of amosite mining and milling in South Africa. Regulatory

Toxicology and Pharmacology, 52(1), 75-81.

Nolan, R.P., Langer, A.M., Ross, M., Wicks, F.J., and Martin, R.F., 2001. The health effects of chrysotile

asbestos: contribution of science to risk-management decisions. The Canadian Mineralogist Special

Publication 5, 304pp.

O’Hanley, D.S., 1996. Serpentinites: Records of Tectonic and Petrological History. Oxford University

Press, New York, 277pp.

Perkins, R.L., 1990. Point-counting technique for friable asbestos-containing materials. Microscope, 38,


Plater, S.F., Riley, R.D., and Simon, S.D., 1992. The classification of asbestos fibres by scanning electron

microscopy and computer digitizing tablet. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 36(2), 155-171.

Pomonis, P., Tsikouras, B., and Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2005. Geological evolution of the Koziakas ophiolitic

complex (western Thessaly, Greece). Ofioliti, 30(2), 77-86.

Pomonis, P., Tsikouras, B., and Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2007. Petrogenetic evolution of the Koziakas ophiolite

complex (W. Thessaly, Greece). Mineralogy and Petrology, 89, 77-111.

Rassios, A., and Smith, A.G., 2000. Constraints on the formation and emplacement age of western Greece

ophiolites (Vourinos, Pindos and Othris) inferred from deformation structures in peridotites. In: Dilek

Y, Moores EM, Elthon D, Nicolas A (Eds), Ophiolites and ocean crust: new insights from field studies

and the Ocean Drilling Program, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 349, 473-483.

Rigopoulos, I., Pomonis, P., Tsikouras, B., and Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2006. Comparative evaluation of

dolerites from the Pindos and Vourinos ophiolitic rocks for their use as aggregates. Tech. Chron. Sci.

XLIII, No 5 – 2724

J. TCG, I, 3, 49-61.

Rigopoulos, I., Tsikouras, B., Pomonis, P., and Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2010. The influence of alteration on

the engineering properties of dolerites: The examples from the Pindos and Vourinos ophiolites (northern

Greece). International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences 47, 69-80.

Rigopoulos, I., Tsikouras, B., Pomonis, P., Karipi, S., and Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2008. Quantification

methods of asbestos fibres in ophiolitic rocks used as aggregates and hazard risk assessment for human

health. 26th European Conference of the Society of Environmental Geochemistry and Health, SEGH

, Athens, Hellas, 31/3/2008-2/4/2008, Abstracts, 48.

Ross, M., and Nolan, R.P., 2003. History of asbestos discovery and use and asbestos-related disease in

context with the occurrence of asbestos within ophiolite complexes. Geological Society of America,

Special Paper 373, 447-470.

Schneider, T., Davies, L.S.T., Burdett, G., Tempelman, J., Puledda, S., Jørgensen, O., Buchanan, D., and

Paoletti, L., 1998. Development of a method for the determination of low contents of asbestos fibres

in bulk material. Analyst, June 1998, 123, 1393-1400.

Skarpelis, N., and Dabitzias, S., 1987. The chrysotile asbestos deposit at Zidani, northern Greece. Ofioliti,

(2), 403-410.

Snyder, R.L., and Bish, D.L., 1989. Quantitative Analysis, in Bish, D.L. and Post, J.E., eds., Modern

Powder Diffraction, Reviews in Mineralogy, Washington, D.C., Mineralogical Society of America, 20,


Stanton, M.F., Layard, M., Tegeris, A., Miller, E., May, M., Morgan, E., and Smith, A., 1981. Relation of

particle dimensions to carcinogenicity in amphibole asbestoses and other fibrous minerals. J National

Cancer Institute, 67, 965-975.

Tsikouras, B., Pomonis, P., Rigopoulos, I., and Hatzipanagiotou, K., 2005. Investigation for the suitability

of basic ophiolitic rocks from the Mikroklissoura Grevena area as anti-skid aggregate material

and railroad ballast. Proc. of the 2nd Conference of the Committee of Economical Geology, Mineralogy

and Geochemistry, 347-356.

Williams-Jones, A.E., Normand, C., Clark, J.R., Vali, H., Martin, R.F., Dufresne, A., and Nayebzadeh, A.,

Controls of amphibole formation in chrysotile deposits: evidence from the Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos,

Quebec. In: Noland, R.P., Langer, A.M., Ross, M., Wicks, F.J. and Martin, R.F. (Eds), The

health effects of chrysotile asbestos: Contribution of science to risk-management decisions, The Canadian

Mineralogist, Special Publication 5, Part 2, Exposure to commercial chrysotile - mineralogy,

modern products and exposures, 89-104.

World Health Organization, 1986. Asbestos and other natural mineral fibres. Environmental Health Criteria,

No. 53. Geneva.

Wylie, A.G., Bailey, K.F., Kelse, J.W., and Lee, R.J., 1993. The importance of width in asbestos fiber

carcinogenicity and its implications for public policy. American Industrial Hygiene Association J,


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 I. Rigopoulos, B. Tsikoura, P. Pomonis, S. Karipi, K. Hatzipanagiotou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.