Ultrasonographic examination of the canine skin: a review

Published: Jan 29, 2018
Ultrasound dog skin ultrasound biomicroscopy

Real time B-mode ultrasonography is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality that does not use radiation and allows examination of various soft tissue structures. For many years it is used in human dermatology and in the last decade it has entered the canine dermatology arena. Based on the frequency employed, cutaneous ultrasonography may be classified as intermediate- (7-15 MHz) or high-frequency (20 MHz or higher). Using intermediate frequency, the ultrasonographic features of normal canine skin are consistent and three distinct visible layers can be seen. Using a 50 MHz transducer, the epidermis and hair follicles are also identified and accurate measurements of skin thickness can be obtained. The aim of this article is to review the available published knowledge regarding ultrasonographic examination of the canine skin.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Review Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Alexander H, Miller DL (1979) Determining skin thickness with pulsed ultra sound. J Investig Dermatol 72: 17-19.
Cammarota T, Pinto F, Magliaro A, Sarno A (1998) Current uses of diagnostic high-frequency US in dermatology. Eur J Radiol 27 (Supplement 2): 215-223.
Diana A, Preziosi R, Guglielmini C et al (2004) High-frequency ultrasonography of the skin of clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 65: 1625-30.
Diana A, Guglielmini C, Fracassi F et al (2008) Use of high-frequency ultrasonography for evaluation of skin thickness in relation to hydration status and fluid distribution at various cutaneous sites in dogs. Am J Vet Res 69: 1148-1152.
Dyson M, Moodley S, Verjee L at al (2003) Wound healing assessment using 20 MHz ultrasound and photography. Skin Res Technol 9: 116-121.
Eisenbeiss C, Welzel J, Eichler W, Klotz K (2001) Influence of body water distribution on skin thickness: measurements using high-frequency ultrasound. Brit J Dermatol 2001; 144: 947-951.
El Gammal S, El Gammal C, Kaspar K, et al (1999) Sonography of the skin at 100 MHz enables in vivo visualization of stratum corneum and viable epidermis in palma skin and psoriatic plaques. J Invest Dermatol 113: 821-829.
El-Zawahry MB, Abdel El-Hameed El-Cheweikh HM, et al. (2007) Ultrasound biomicroscopy in the diagnosis of skin diseases. Eur J Dermatol 17 (6): 469-75
Fornage BD, Deshayes JL (1986) Ultrasound of normal skin. J Clin Ultrasound14: 619-622.
Fornage BD, McGavran MH, Duvic M, Waldron CA (1993) Imaging of the skin with 20-MHz US. Radiology 189: 69-76.
Fornage BD (1993) Sonography of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. La Radiologia Medica 85 (Supplement 1): 149-155.
Foster FS, Pavlin CJ, Harasiewicz KA et al (2000) Advances in ultrasound biomicroscopy. Ultrasound Med Biol 26: 1-27.
Gniadecka M (1996) Localization of dermal edema in lipodermatosclerosis, lymphedema, and cardiac insufficiency. High-frequency ultrasound examination of intradermal echogenicity. J Am Acad Dermatol 35: 37-41.
Gniadecka M, Quistorff B (1996) Assessment of dermal water by highfrequency ultrasound: comparative studies with nuclear magnetic resonance. Brit J Dermatol 135: 218-224.
Hoffmann K, El Gammal S, Winkler K, et al (1992) Skin tumours in high frequency ultrasound. In (eds Altmeyer P, el Gammal S, Hoffmann K) Ultrasound in Dermatology, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 181-201
Kong L, Caspall J, Duckworth M, Sprigle S (2008) Assessment of an ultrasonic dermal scanner for skin thickness measurements. Med Eng Phys 30: 804-807.
Kumagai K, Koike H, Nagaoka R et al (2012) High-resolution ultrasound imaging of human skin in vivo by using three-dimensional ultrasound microscopy. Ultrasound Med Biol. 38(10):1833-1838.
Mantis P, Lloyd DH, Pfeiffer D et al (2005) High-resolution ultrasonography of experimentally induced full-thickness canine skin wounds: Efficacy in imaging canine skin and comparison of 2 methods of measuring wound size. Wounds 17: 107-113.
Mantis P, Lloyd DH, Pfeiffer D et al (2007) Assessment of the effect of an aliamide-containing topical gel by evaluation of the reduction of wound volume measured by high resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy. Wounds 19 113-119.
Mantis P, Tontis D, Church D et al (2014) High-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy of the normal canine haired skin. Vet Dermatol 25: 176–e45.
Milner SM, Memar OM, Gherardini G et al (1997) The histological interpretation of high frequency cutaneous ultrasound imaging. Dermatol Surg 23: 43-45.
Miller WH, Griffin CE, Campbell KL (2013) Structure and function of the skin. In: (eds Mueller & Kirk’s) Small Animal Dermatology, 7th edn. Elsevier Mosby, St. Louis, Missouri, pp. 1-56.
Mirpuri NG, Dyson M, Rymer J et al (2001) High-frequency ultrasound imaging of the skin during normal and hypertensive pregnancies. Skin Res Technol 7: 65-69.
Miyauchi S, Miki Y (1983) Normal human skin echogram. Arch Dermatol Res 275: 345-349.
Noli C. (2008) Structure and physiology of skin and hair. In: (eds Guaguere E, Prelaud P,Craig M) A Practical Guide to Canine Dermatology, edn. Kalianxis, Italy, pp. 17-30.
Poziniak MA, Crass JR, Zagzebsky J et al (1989) Clinical efficacy of Kitecko ultrasonic conductor. Invest Radiol 24:128–132.
Schmid-Wendtner MH, Dill-Müller D (2008) Ultrasound Technology in Dermatology. Semin Cutan Med Surg 27:44-51
Scope A, Halpern AC. Diagnostic procedures and devices (2003) In: (eds Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz S, Gilchrest BA, Paller AS,Leffell DJ) Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine, 7th edn McGraw Hill, New York, pp.40-43.
Szymanska E, Nowicki A, Mlosek K et al (2000) Skin imaging with high frequency ultrasound—preliminary result. Eur J Ultrasound 12:9–16.
Vestergaard ME, Macaskill P, Holt PE, Menzies SW (2008) Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: a meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting. Br J Dermatol 159: 669-676.
Warszawski A, Röttinger EM, Vogel R, Warszawski N (1997) 20 MHz ultrasonic imaging for quantitative assessment and documentation of early and late postradiation skin reactions in breast cancer patients. Radiother Oncol 47: 241-247.
Wortsman X, Wortsman J (2010) Clinical usefulness of variablefrequency ultrasound in localized lesions of the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 62:247–256.
Wortsman X, Jemec G (2010) Common inflammatory diseases of the skin: from the skin to the screen. Adv Psoriasis Inflammatory Skin Dis 2:9–15.
Wortsman X (2012) Common Applications of Dermatologic Sonography. J Ultras Med 31:97–111.
Zanna G, Fondevila D, Ferrer L, Espada Y (2012) Evaluation of ultrasonography for measurement of skin thickness in Shar-Peis. Am J Vet Res 73:220–226.
Most read articles by the same author(s)