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Metabolie epidermal necrosis (hepatocutaneous syndrome) in the dog: A clinical and pathological review of 6 spontaneous cases


C. K. KOUTINAS (X.K. ΚΟΥΤΙΝΑΣ)
A. F. KOUTINAS (Α.Φ. ΚΟΥΤΙΝΑΣ)
M. N. SARIDOMICHELAKIS (Μ.Ν. ΣΑΡΙΔΟΜΙΧΕΛΑΚΗΣ)
H. KALDRYMIDOU (Ε. ΚΑΛΔΡΥΜΙΔΟΥ)
N. ROUBIES (Ν. ΡΟΥΜΠΙΕΣ)
Abstract

Metabolic epidermal necrosis was diagnosed in 6 dogs admitted to the Clinic of Companion Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, A.U.T., between 1989 and 1998. Four of these animals were males and 2 females with an age range of 8 to 11.5 years. Bilaterally symmetrical (5/6) or asymmetrical (1/6) skin lesions characterized by alopecia – hypotrichosis (5/6), erythema (6/6), depigmentation (3/6), epidermal colarettes (3/6), ulcers and erosions (6/6), crusts (6/6), footpad and nose hyperkeratosis (5/6), edema (4/6), exudation (3/6), pustules (2/6), scales (2/6) and papules (1/6) were observed in all of the dogs. These lesions were located on the limbs (6/6), the external genitalia (5/6), ventral abdomen (4/6), mucocutaneos junctions (4/6), pressure points (3/6), distal extremities (3/6), nasal philthrum (3/6), muzzle (2/6), axillae (1/6) and on the dorsal aspect of the body trunk (1/6). The most important clinicopathologic findings included anemia (5/6), leucocytosis (3/6), thrombocytopenia (1/6), hypoalbuminaemia (4/5), hyperglycemia (3/6), increased alkaline phosphatase (4/6) and alanino-aminotransferase (5/6) activities, hypocalcaemia (2/5), proteinuria (1/6) and glycosuria (3/6). Liver histopathology, carried out in 4 dogs, revealed vacuolar hepatopathy in all of them. The same underlying disease was suspected in one additional case, whereas pancreatic glucagonoma was a possibility for the remaining dog. Systemic an/or topical treatment, that was attempted in 3 dogs, was unrewarding. All the 6 dogs died (3/6) or were euthanized (3/6) 2 to 17 months after the appearance of the skin lesions.

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References
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