| More

Perceived parental practices and internalized symptoms in children: the role of victimization and temperament of negative affectivity through mediation and moderated models

Views: 197 Downloads: 115
Louiza Ioannidou, Stelios Georgiou

Abstract


The development of internalized symptoms in children is a complex process involving various factors. In particular, research has linked parental practices to the development of internalized symptoms in children. However, this factor alone cannot fully explain the development of internalized symptoms in children, as other factors seem to influence this process. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors and mechanisms by which children develop internalized symptoms. In particular, the research examines how the relationship between parental practices and internalized symptoms is influenced by mediator and moderator factors, such as victimization and temperament. The research includes 374 children and their parents. The children attended the 5th and 6th grade of elementary school and the 1st and 2nd grade of high school and were between the ages of 10 and 14. The children completed the following tools: the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist – Parent Report, CBCL (Achenbach System for Empirically Based Assessment). For the statistical analysis of the data, the process method of the SPSS was used to construct mediation and moderated models that examine the relationship between parental practices and internalized symptoms, with victimization as mediator and temperament of negative affectivity as moderator factor. The results of the research highlighted that the relationship between parental practices and internalized symptoms is mediated by victimization, suggesting that a significant part of the above relationship is due to the mediation of victimization. The research also showed that negative affectivity temperament functions as a moderator factor in the relationship between parenting practices and internalized symptoms, suggesting that children with negative affectivity temperament develop more internalized symptoms when their parents use negative parenting practices. The research findings can contribute to the psychosocial and psycho-emotional empowerment of children, through the design of appropriate prevention and intervention programs.

Keywords


internalized symptoms in children; negative affectivity temperament; Parental practices; victimization

References


Accordino, D. B., & Accordino, M. P. (2011). An exploratory study of face-to-face and cyberbullying in sixth grade students. American Secondary Education, 40, 14–30. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23100411

Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Pro file. University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.

Affrunti, N., Geronimi, E., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2014). Temperament, peer victimization, and nurturing parenting in child anxiety: A moderated mediation model. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev, 45, 483-492. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10578-013-0418-2

Affrunti, N.W., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2016). Negative affect and child internalizing symptoms: The mediating role of perfectionism. Child Psychiatry & Humαn Development, 47, 358–368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-015-0571-x

Ainsworth, M. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Erlbaum.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th Ed.). Author.

Atik, G., & Güneri, O. (2013). Bullying and victimization: Predictive role of individual, parental, and academic factors. School Psychology International, 34, 658-673. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143034313479699

Baldry, A. C., & Farrington, D. P. (1998). Parenting influences on bullying an victimization. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 3, 237-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8333.1998.tb00364.x

Barber, B. K. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revising a neglected construct. Child development, 67, 3296-3319. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01915.x

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173

Belsky, J., Hsieh, K. H., & Crnic, K. (1998). Mothering, fathering, and infant negativity as antecedents of boys' externalizing problems and inhibition at age 3 years: Differential susceptibility to rearing experience? Development and Psychopathology, 10, 301–319. https://doi.org/10.1017/S095457949800162X

Beran, T. (2009). Correlates of peer victimization and achievement: An exploratory model. Psychology in School, 46, 348-361. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20380

Booth, C. L. (1994). Predicting social adjustment in middle school: The role of preschool attachment security and maternal style. Social Development, 3, 189-204. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.1994.tb00040.x

Bowes, L., Arseneault, L., Maughan, B. Taylor, A., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. (2009). School, neighborhood, and family factors are associated with children's bullying involvement: A nationally representative longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 545-553. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819cb017

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent- child attachment and healthy human development. Basic Books.

Brajša-Žganec, A. (2014). Emotional life of the family: Parental meta-emotions, children's temperament and internalising and externalising problems. Društvena istraživanja - Časopis za opća društvena pitanja, 1, 25-45. https://doi.org/10.5559 /di.23.1.02

Branje, S. T., Hale, W. W., Frijns, T., & Meeus, W. H. (2010). Longitudinal associations between perceived parent-child relationship quality and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 751–763. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-010-9401-6

Brendgen, M., Wanner, B., Morin, A. J. S., & Vitaro, F. (2005). Relations with parents and with peers, temperament, and trajectories of depressed mood during early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 579–594. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-005-6739-2

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513-531. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513

Buchanan-Pascall, S., Gray, K., Gordon, M., & Melvin, G. (2018). Systematic review and meta-analysis of parent group interventions for primary school children aged 4–12 years with externalizing and/or internalizing problems, Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 49, 244-267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-017-0745-9

Bukowski, W., & Adams, R. (2005). Peer relationships and psychopathology: Markers, moderators, mediators, mechanisms, and meanings. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 3-10. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_1

Burke, T., Sticca, F., & Perren, S. (2017). Everything’s gonna be alright! The longitudinal interplay among social support, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 1999-2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0653-0

Canetti, L., Bachar, E., Galili-Weisstub, E., Atara, K. D., & Shalev, A. Y. (1997). Parental bonding and mental health in adolescence. Adolescence, 32, 381-94. https://search.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/parental-bonding-mental-health-adolescence/docview/195942973/se-2?accountid=29914

Chan, K. L. (2013). Victimization and poly-victimization among school-aged Chinese adolescents:Prevalence and associations with health. Preventive Medicine, 56, 207–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.018

Colder, C. R., Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (1997). The moderating effects of children’s fear and activity level on relations between parenting practices and childhood symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 251–263. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025704217619

Cole, D. A., Sinclair-McBride, K. R., Zelkowitz, R., Bilsk, S. A., Roeder, K., & Spinelli, T. (2015). Peer victimization and harsh parenting predict cognitive diatheses for depression in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1004679

Coln, K. L., Jordan, S. S., & Mercer, S. H. (2013). A unified model exploring parenting practices as mediators of marital conflict and children’s adjustment. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44, 419–429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-012-0336-8

Cook, C., Williams K., Guerra N., Kim, T., & Shadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly. 25, 65–83. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020149

Cosma, A., Balazsi, R., & Baban, A. (2018). Bullying victimization and internalizing problems in school aged children: A longitudinal approach. Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1, 31-45. https://doi.org/10.2 4193/cbb.2018.22.03

Costello, E. J., Egger, H. L., & Angold, A, (2005) The developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders: phenomenology, prevalence, and comorbidity. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 631–648. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.chc.2005.06.003

Crawford, N. A., Schrock, S., & Woodruff-Borden, J. (2011). Child internalizing symptoms: Contributions of child temperament, maternal negative affect, and family functioning. Child Psychiatry Human Development, 42, 53-64. https://doi.org/10.1007 /s10578-010-0202-5

Crockenberg, S. C., & Leerkes, E. M. (2006). Infant and maternal behavior moderate reactivity to novelty to predict anxious behavior at 2.5 years. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 17–34. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579406060020

Davis, S., Votruba-Drzal, E., & Silk, J. (2015). Trajectories of Internalizing Symptoms from Early Childhood to Adolescence: Associations with Temperament and Parenting. Social Development, 24, 501-520. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12105

Degnan, K., Almas, A., & Fox, N. (2010). Temperament and the environment in the etiology of childhood anxiety. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 51, 497–517. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02228.x

de Haan, A. D., Prinzie, P., & Deković, M. (2009). Mothers’ and fathers’ personality and parenting: The mediating role of sense of competence. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1695–1707. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016121

Dehue, F., Bolman, C., Vollink, T., & Pouwelse, M. (2012). Cyberbullying and traditional bullying in relation to adolescents’ perception of parenting. Journal of CyberTherapy and Rehabilitation 5, 25-34.

Demanet, J., & Van Houtte, M. (2012). The impact of bullying and victimization on students’ relationships. American Journal of Health Education, 43, 104-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/19325037.2012.10599225

Dornbusch, S., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, H. P., Roberts, F. D. & Fraleigh, M.J. (1987). The relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance. Child Development, 58, 1244-1257. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130618

Fairchild, A. J., & MacKinnon D. P. (2009). A general model for testing mediation and moderation effects. Prevention Science, 10, 87-99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-008-0109-6

Fine, M. A., Voydanoff, P., & Donnelly, B. W. (1993). Relations between parental control and warmth and child well-being in stepfamilies. Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 222-232. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.7.2.222

Finnegan, R. A., Hodges, E. V. E., & Perry, D. G. (1998). Victimization by peers: Associations with children’s reports of mother-child interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1076-1086. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.4.1076

Gallagher, K. (2002). Does child temperament moderate the influence of parenting on adjustment? Developmental Review, 22, 623-643. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0273-2297(02)00503-8

Georgiou, S. N. (2008b). Bullying and victimization at school: The role of mothers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 109-125. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709907X204363

Georgiou, S. N. (2008a). Parental style and child bullying and victimization experiences at school.Social Psychology of Education, 11, 213–227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-007-9048-5

Georgiou, S. N., & Fanti, K. A. (2014). Transactional associations between mother-child conflict and child externalising and internalising problems. Educational Psychology, 34, 133-153. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2013.785055

Gilliom, M., & Shaw, D.S. (2004). Codevelopment of externalizing and internalizing problems in early childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 313-333. https://doi.org/10.10170s0954579404044530

Gómez-Ortiz, O., Del Rey, R., Casas, J. A., & Ortega-Ruiz, R. (2014). Parenting styles and bullying involvement. Cultura & Educación, 26, 132–158. https://doi.org/10.1080/11356405.2014.908665

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation and conditional process analysis. A regression-based approach (2nd Ed.). Τhe Guildford Press.

Hermandez–Guzman, L., Montesinos, M., Bermúdez-Ornelas, G., Freyre, M., & Olán, R. (2013). Parental practices scale for children. Revista Colombiana de Psicologia, 22, 151-161. https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/psicologia/article/view /29485

Hong, J., Kim, D., delara, E., Wei, H., Prisner, A., & Alexander, N. (2020). Parenting style and bullying and victimization: Comparing foreign-born Asian, U.S.-Born Asian, and White American adolescents. Journal of Family Violence, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-020-00176-y

Isolan, L., Abraha˜o Salum, G., Osowski, A. T., Zottis, G. H., & Manfro, G. G. (2013). Victims and bully-victims but not bullies are groups associated with anxiety symptomatology among Brazilian children and adolescents. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 641–648. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0412-z

Keogh, E., & Reidy, J. (2000). Exploring the factor structure of the mood and anxiety symptom questionnaire (MASQ). Journal of Personality Assessment, 74, 106-125. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327752JPA740108

Kessler, R., Petukhova, M., Sampson, N., Zaslavsky, A., & Wittchen, H. (2012). Twelve‐month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 21, 169-184. https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.1359

Kiff, C. J., Lengua, L. J., & Bush, N. R. (2011). Temperament variation in sensitivity to parenting: Predicting changes in depression and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 1199-1212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9539-x

Kiff, C.J., Lengua, L.J., & Zalewski, M. (2011). Nature and nurturing: Parenting in the context of child Temperament. Clinical Child Family Psychology Review, 14, 251-301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-011-0093-4

Kljakovic, M., & Hunt, C. (2016). A meta-analysis of predictors of bullying and victimization in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 49, 134-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.03.002

Klomek, A., Marrocco, F., Kleinman, M., Schonfeld, I., & Gould, M. (2007). Bullying, depression and suicidality in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 40-49. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi. 0000242237.84925.18

Krog, T., & Duel, M. (2003). Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). Psykologisk Studieskriftserie, 6, 1-162.

Laurent, J., Catanzaro, S. J., Joiner J., Thomas E., Rudolph, K. D., Potter, K. I., Lambert, S., Osborne, L., & Gathright, T. (1999). A measure of positive and negative affect for children: Scale development and preliminary validation. Psychological Assessment, 11, 326-338. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.11.3.326

Lengua, L. J., Wolchik, S. A., Sandler, I. N., & West, S. G. (2000). The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 232-244. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424jccp2902_9

Lereya, S. T., Samara, Μ., & Wolke, D. (2013). Parenting behavior and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: A meta-analysis study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37, 1091–1108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.03.001

Lester, L., Dooley, J., Cross, D., & Shaw, T. (2012). Internalizing symptoms: An antecedent or precedent in adolescent peer victimization. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 22, 173–189. https://search.informit.org/doi/10.3316/infor mit.024709875903249

Luckyx, K., Tildesley, E. A., Soenens, B., Andrews, J. A., Hampson, S. E., Peterson, M., & Duriez, B. (2011). Parenting and trajectories of children’s maladaptive behaviours: A 12-year prospective community study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 468–478. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.563470

McLeod, B. D., Weisz, J. R., & Wood, J. J. (2007). Examining the association between parenting and childhood depression: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 986-1003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.03.001

McLeod, B. D., Wood, J. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2007). Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 155–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2006.09.002

Mengton, C., & Ko Ling, C. (2016). Parental absence, child victimization, and psychological well-being in rural China. Child Abuse and Neglect, 59, 45-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.07.009

Moore, S., Norman, R., Suetani, S., Thomas, H., Sly, P., & Scott, J. (2017). Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. World Journal of Psychiatry, 7, 60-76. https://doi.org/10. 5498/wjp.v7.i1.60

Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Sessa, F. M., Avenevoli, S. & Essex, M. J. (2002). Temperamental vulnerability and negative parenting as interacting predictors of child adjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 461–471. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00461.x

Mullineaux, P., Deater-Deckard, K., Petrill, S., & Thompson, L. (2009). Parenting and child behaviour problems: a longitudinal analysis of non‐shared environment. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18, 133-148. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.593

Myers, D. G. (1999). Social psychology. McGraw Hill.

Nikiforou, Μ., Georgiou, S. N., & Stavrinides, P. (2013). Attachment to parents and peers as a parameter of bullying and victimization. Journal of Criminology, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/484871

Oldehinkel, A. J., Veenstra, R., Ormel, J., de Winter, A. F., & Verhulst, F. C. (2006). Temperament, parenting, and depressive symptoms in a population sample of preadolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 47, 684–695. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01535.x

Olweus, D. (1978). Aggression in the schools. Bullies and whipping boys. DC7 Hemisphere Press.

Olweus, D. (1984). Aggressors and their victims: Bullying at school. In N. Frude, & H. Gault (Eds.), Disruptive Behavior in School (pp. 57-76). Wiley.

Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school. What we know and what we can do. Blackwell Publishers.

Olweus, D. (1996). The revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire for students. University of Bergen.

Papanikolaou, Μ., Chatzikosma, Τ., & Kleio, Κ. (2011). Bullying at school: The role of family. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 433–442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.260

Parker, G. (1990). Parental rearing style: examining links with personality vulnerability factors for depression. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 28, 97-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00801738

Parker G., Tupling M., & Brown, L.B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1979.tb02487.x

Rapee, R. M., Schniering, C. A., & Hudson, J. L. (2009). Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: origins and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 311–341. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153628

Reijntjes, A., Kamphuis, J., Prinzie, P., & Telch, M. (2010). Peer victimizatiop0n and internalizing problems in children: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 244-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.009

Rigby, K., Slee, P. T., & Martin, G. (2007). Implications of inadequate parental bonding and peer victimization for adolescents’ mental health. Journal of Adolescence, 30, 801-812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.09.008

Rose, J., Roman, N., Mwaba, K., & Ismail, K. (2017). The relationship between parenting and internalizing behaviours of children: a systematic review. Early Child Development and Care, 1468-1486. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2016.1269762

Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3, Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp99-166). Wiley.

Rubin, K. H., Hastings, P., Chen, X., Stewart, S., & McNichol, K. (1998). Intrapersonal and maternal correlates of aggression, conflict, and externalizing problems in toddlers. Child Development, 69, 1614–1629. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06180.x

Stevens, V., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Van Oost, P. (2002). Relationship of the family environment to children’s involvement in bully/victim problems at school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 419–428. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020207003027

Shin, Y., & Kim, H. Y. (2008). Peer victimization in Korean preschool children: The effects of child characteristics, parenting behaviors and teacher-child relationships. School Psychology International, 29, 590-605. https://doi.org/10.1177%2 F0143034308099203

Sroufe, L. A, Carlson, A. E, Levy, K. A., & Egeland, B. (1999). Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology. Developmental Psychopathology, 11, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579499001923

Stavrinides, P, Georgiou, S., Nikiforou, M., & Kiteri, E. (2011). Longitudinal investigation of the relationship between bullying and psychosocial adjustment. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 730–743. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2 011.628545

Stevens, V., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & Van Oost, P. (2002). Relationship of the family environment to children’s involvement in bully/victim problems at school. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 419–428. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020207003027

Tennant, J., Klossing, J., Demaray, M., Dorio, N., Bixler, T., & Bowman-Perrott, L. (2019). Internalizing problems of youth involved in bullying via different participant role combinations and gender. School Psychology Review, 48, 222-236. https://doi.org/10.17105/SPR-2017-0078.V48-3

Thomson, R., & Leabeater, B. (2012). Peer victimization and internalizing symptoms from adolescence into young adulthood: Building strength through emotional support. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23, 290-303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00827.x

Turner, M. G., Exum, M. L., Brame, R., & Holt, T. J. (2013). Bullying victimization and adolescent mental health: General and typological effects across sex. Journal of Criminal Justice, 41, 3–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2012.12.005

Veenstra, R., Lindenberg, S., Oldehinker, A. J., De Winter, A. F., Verhulst, F. C., & Ormel, J. (2005). Bullying and victimization in elementary schools: A comparison of bullies, victims, bully/victims, and uninvolved preadolescents. Developmental Psychology, 41, 672-682. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.41.4.672

Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1984). Negative affectivity: The disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 465-490. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.96.3.465

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Carey, G. (1988). Positive and negative affect and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 346-353. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.97.3.346

Wood, J. J. (2006). Parental intrusiveness and children's separation anxiety in a clinical sample. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 37, 73−87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-006-0021-x

Young, R., Lennie, S., & Minnis, H. (2011). Children’s perceptions of parental emotional neglect and control and psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 889–897. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02390.x

Zwierzynska, K., Wolke, D., & Lereya, T. S. (2013). Peer victimization in childhood and nternalizing problems in adolescence: A prospective longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 309–323. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9678-8


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Λουΐζα Ιωαννίδου, Στέλιος Γεωργίου

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Psychology | Hellenic Psychological Society | www.elpse.com