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Perceived parental practices and internalized symptoms in children: the role of victimization and temperament of negative affectivity through mediation and moderated models

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Louiza Ioannidou, Stelios Georgiou


The development of internalized symptoms in children is a complex process involving various factors. In particular, research has linked parental practices to the development of internalized symptoms in children. However, this factor alone cannot fully explain the development of internalized symptoms in children, as other factors seem to influence this process. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors and mechanisms by which children develop internalized symptoms. In particular, the research examines how the relationship between parental practices and internalized symptoms is influenced by mediator and moderator factors, such as victimization and temperament. The research includes 374 children and their parents. The children attended the 5th and 6th grade of elementary school and the 1st and 2nd grade of high school and were between the ages of 10 and 14. The children completed the following tools: the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist – Parent Report, CBCL (Achenbach System for Empirically Based Assessment). For the statistical analysis of the data, the process method of the SPSS was used to construct mediation and moderated models that examine the relationship between parental practices and internalized symptoms, with victimization as mediator and temperament of negative affectivity as moderator factor. The results of the research highlighted that the relationship between parental practices and internalized symptoms is mediated by victimization, suggesting that a significant part of the above relationship is due to the mediation of victimization. The research also showed that negative affectivity temperament functions as a moderator factor in the relationship between parenting practices and internalized symptoms, suggesting that children with negative affectivity temperament develop more internalized symptoms when their parents use negative parenting practices. The research findings can contribute to the psychosocial and psycho-emotional empowerment of children, through the design of appropriate prevention and intervention programs.


internalized symptoms in children; negative affectivity temperament; Parental practices; victimization


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