Profiling parents’ wellbeing with a newly developed positive parenting measure

Published: Νοε 18, 2022
Parenting Positive Parenting Latent Profile Analysis wellbeing NICOMACHUS Positive Parenting NPP LPA
Theodoros Kyriazos
Anastassios Stalikas

This study focused on replicating the tenability and reliability of the 4-factor structure of a new positive parenting measure, namely NICOMACHUS – Positive Parenting (NPP). Positive parenting scores were used along with wellbeing scores (emotional, psychological, happiness, life satisfaction, positive emotions, life meaning) to profile respondents using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA). The sample included 489 respondents with at least a child aged 7–13 years during 2021-22 (amidst COVID-19). The 4-factor NPP structure was tenable and reliable. The significantly different 4-factor bifactor model vs. the first-order 4-factor model suggested there may be a general parenting factor simultaneously with the 4 specific positive parenting factors. Bifactor fit measures suggested both total and per factor NPP scores can be reliably calculated. Regarding LPA, 3 positive parenting–wellbeing profiles emerged with adequate size. Profile 1 (containing about 50% of the respondents) had the highest positive parenting and wellbeing scores. Profile 2 (containing about 35% of the respondents) had the 2nd highest positive parenting and the lowest wellbeing scores. Profile 3 (containing about 15% of the respondents) had the lowest positive parenting and the 2nd highest wellbeing scores. This 3-profile solution was cross-validated with 8 different clustering methods. Mean score differences across the 3 profiles were significant, with a large effect size for all the LPA inputs, suggesting that the derived profiles were significantly distinct from one another. There were significant associations between parental characteristics (age, role, education level, work status, annual income), child characteristics (gender, special needs, birth order), and profile membership.

Article Details
  • Section
Download data is not yet available.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., & Waters, E. (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Earlbaum.
Akogul, S., & Erisoglu, M. (2017). An Approach for Determining the Number of Clusters in a Model-Based Cluster Analysis. Entropy, 19, 452.
Asplund, J., Lopez, S. J., Hodges, T., & Harter, J. (2007). The Clifton StrengthsFinder 2.0 technical report: Development and validation. The Gallup Organization.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Prentice-Hall.
Bauer, D. J., & Curran, P. J. (2004). The integration of continuous and discrete latent variable models: potential problems and promising opportunities. Psychological Methods, 9(1), 3-29.
Baumrind, D. (1971). Current Patterns of Parental Authority. Developmental Psychology, 4(1), 1-103.
Bensmail, H., Celeux, G., Raftery, A. E., & Robert, C. P. (1997). Inference in model-based cluster analysis. Statistics and Computing, 7(1), 1-10.
Bentler, P. M. (1972). A Lower-Bound Method for the Dimension-Free Measurement of Internal Consistency. Social Science Research, 1, 343-357.
Berry, J. D., & Jones, W. H. (1995). The Parental Stress Scale: Initial Psychometric Evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12, 463-472.
Biernacki, C., & Govaert, G. (1997). Using the classification likelihood to choose the number of clusters. Computing Science and Statistics, 451-457.
Bollen, K. A. (1980). Issues in the Comparative Measurement of Political Democracy. American Sociological Review, 45, 370-390.
Boniwell, I., David, S.A., & Ayers, A.C. (Eds.). (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Happiness. Oxford University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss: Attachment. Pengui.
Bradley, R. H. (2002). Environment and Parenting. In Handbook of Parenting: Vol. 2: Biology and Ecology of Parenting (2nd ed., pp. 281-314). Erlbaum.
Bradley, R. H., & Caldwell, B. M. (1995). Caregiving and the Regulation of Child Growth and Development: Describing Proximal Aspects of Caregiving Systems. Developmental Review, 15, 38-85.
Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. Guilford Publications.
Butler, J., & Kern, M. L. (2016). The PERMA-Profiler: A Brief Multidimensional Measure of Flourishing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 6, 1-48.
Cavanaugh, M. A., & Noe, R. A. (1999). Antecedents and consequences of relational components of the new psychological contract. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 20(3), 323-340.<323::AID-JOB901>3.0.CO;2-M
Charrad, M., Ghazzali, N., Boiteau, V., & Niknafs, A. (2014). NbClust: an R package for determining the relevant number of clusters in a data set. Journal of Statistical Software, 61, 1-36.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R.E., & Smith, H.L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276.
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D. W., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97(2), 143-156.
Elgar, F. J., Waschbusch, D. A., Dadds, M. R., & Sigvaldason, N. (2007). Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 243-259.
Ferguson, S. L., Moore, E. W. G., & Hull, D. M. (2020). Finding latent groups in observed data: A primer on latent profile analysis in Mplus for applied researchers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 44(5), 458-468.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 382-388.
Fraley, C., & Raftery, A. E. (2002). Model-based clustering, discriminant analysis and density estimation. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 97, 611–631.
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). Cultivated Emotions: Parental Socialization of Positive Emotions and Self-Conscious Emotions. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 279-281.
Giotsa, A. Kyriazos, T.A., Mitrogiorgou, E. (2018). Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Interpersonal Anxiety in Young Adults. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 15, 138-150.
Giotsa, A. Z., Zergiotis, A. N., & Kyriazos, T. (2018). Is the Greek Version of Teacher’s Evaluation of Student’s Conduct (TESC) a Valid and Reliable Measure? Psychology, 9, 1208-1227.
Giotsa, A., & Kyriazos, T. A. (2019). Early Childhood Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version. Psychology, 10, 722-741.
Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Hansen, T., Slagsvold, B., & Moum, T. (2009). Childless and psychological well-being in midlife and old age: An examination of parental status effects across a range of outcomes. Social Indicators Research, 94, 343–362.
Hart, R. (2021). Positive Psychology: The Basics. Routledge.
Hennig, C. (2016). Clustering Strategy and Method Selection. In C. Hennig, M. Meila, F. Murtagh, R. Rocci (Eds.), Handbook of Cluster Analysis (pp. 703–730). CRC Press/Chapman & Hall.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
Huta, V. (2012). Linking Peoples’ Pursuit of Eudaimonia and Hedonia with Characteristics of Their Parents: Parenting Styles, Verbally Endorsed Values, and Role Modeling. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 47-61.
Jackson, P., & Agunwamba, C. (1977). Lower Bounds for the Reliability of the Total Score on a Test Composed of Non-Homogeneous Items: I: Algebraic Lower Bounds. Psychometrika, 42, 567-578.
James, D., Schumm, W., Kennedy, C., Grigsby, C., Shectman, K., & Nichols, C. (1985). Characteristics of the Kansas Parental Satisfaction Scale among Two Samples of Married Parents. Psychological Reports, 57, 163-169.
Jovanović, J., Joshanloo, M., Martín-Carbonell, M., Caudek, C., Espejo, B., Checa, I., Krasko, J., Kyriazos, T., Piotrowski, J., Rice, S. P. M., Silva, A. J., Singh, K., Sumi, K., Tong, K. T., Yıldırım, M., & Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M. (2021). Measurement Invariance of the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience Across 13 Countries. Assessment, 1–15.
Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D. A., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The day reconstruction method. Science, 306, 1776–1780.
Keyes, C. L. (2002). The Mental Health Continuum: From Languishing to Flourishing in Life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 207-222.
Keyes, C. L. M., Wissing, M., Potgieter, J., Temane, M., Kruger, A., & van Rooy, S. (2008). Evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) in Setswana-Speaking South Africans. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 15, 181-192.
Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling: Methodology in the social sciences (4th ed.). Guilford Press.
Kline, R. B. (2020). Becoming a Behavioral Science Researcher (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.
Koutroumbas, K., & Theodoridis, S. (2008). Pattern recognition. Academic Press.
Kyriazos, T. (2017). Reliability of psychometric instruments. In M, Galanakis, C, Pezirkianidis, A. Stalikas (Eds), Basic aspects of psychometrics, (p. 85-126). Topos.
Kyriazos, T. A. (2018). Applied Psychometrics: The Application of CFA to Multitrait-Multimethod Matrices (CFA-MTMM). Psychology, 9, 2625-2648.
Kyriazos, T. A. (2019). Applied Psychometrics: The Modeling Possibilities of Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MLV CFA). Psychology, 10, 777-798.
Kyriazos, T. A., & Giotsa, A. (2019). Interpersonal Rejection Anxiety Questionnaire (IRAQ): Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version. Psychology, 10, 1542-1563.
Kyriazos, T. A., & Stalikas, A. (2018). Positive Parenting or Positive Psychology Parenting? Towards a Conceptual Framework of Positive Psychology Parenting. Psychology, 9, 1761-1788.
Kyriazos, T. A., & Stalikas, A. (2019a). Nicomachus-Positive Parenting (NPP): Development and Initial Validation of a Parenting Questionnaire within the Positive Psychology Framework. Psychology, 10, 2115-2165.
Kyriazos, T. A., & Stalikas, A. (2019b). Alabama Parenting Questionnaire—Short Form (APQ-9): Evidencing Construct Validity with Factor Analysis, CFA MTMM and Measurement Invariance in a Greek Sample. Psychology, 10, 1790-1817.
Kyriazos, T., & Stalikas, A. (2021). Psychometric Evidence of the 10-Item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10, Greek Version) and the Predictive Power of Resilience on Well-Being and Distress. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 9, 280-308.
Kyriazos, T. A., Stalikas, A., Prassa, K., & Yotsidi, V. (2018). A 3-Faced Construct Validation and a Bifactor Subjective Well-Being Model Using the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, Greek Version. Psychology, 9, 1143-1175.
Kyriazos, T, Galanakis, M., Karakasidou, E., Stalikas, A. (2021a). Well-Being Implications of the COVID-19 Quarantine Using Machine Learning: Are Creative Activities a Ubiquitous Classifier? Personality and Individual Differences, 181, 110980.
Kyriazos, T., Galanakis, M., Katerelos, I., & Stalikas, A. (2021b). Does the Pollyannaish View on Life Hold during Early COVID-19 Quarantine? Modeling the Effects of Positive Emotions, Hope, Optimism and Life Meaning on Life Satisfaction. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 9, 315-338. 6/jss.2021.910023
Lovejoy, M. C., Weis, R., O’Hare, E., & Rubin, E. C. (1999). Development and Initial Validation of the Parent Behaviour Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 11, 534-545.
Luhmann, M., Hofmann, W., Eid, M., & Lucas, R. E. (2012). Subjective well-being and adaptation to life events: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 592–615.
Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. (1999). A Measure of Subjective Happiness: Preliminary Reliability and Construct Validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137-155.
MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power Analysis and Determination of Sample Size for Covariance Structure Modeling. Psychological Methods,1, 130.
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the Context of the Family: Parent-Child Interaction. In E. M. Hetherington, & P. H. Mussen (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, Personality, and Social Development (pp. 1-101). Wiley.
Mair, P. (2018). Modern Psychometrics with R. Springer.
Margolis, R., & Myrskyla, M. (2015). Parental well-being surrounding first birth as a determinant of further parity progression. Demography, 52, 1147–1166.
Masyn, K. E. (2013). 25 latent class analysis and finite mixture modeling. The Oxford handbook of quantitative methods, 2, 551.
McDermott, R.C. & Levant, R., & Hammer, J.H. & Hall, R.J. & McKelvey, D.K. & Jones, Z. (2017) Further examination of the factor structure of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF): measurement considerations for women, men of color, and gay men. Journal of counseling psychology., 64 (6). pp. 724-738.
McDonald, R.P. (1999). Test Theory: A Unified Treatment. Erlbaum.
Musick, K., Meier, A., & Flood, S. (2016). How parents fare: Mothers’ and fathers’ subjective wellbeing in time with children. American Sociological Review, 81, 1069–1095.
Nelson, S. K., Kushlev, K., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2014). The pains and pleasures of parenting: When, why, and how is parenthood associated with more or less wellbeing? Psychological Bulletin, 140, 846–869
Nelson, S. K., Kushlev, K., English, T., Dunn, E. W., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2013). In defense of parenthood: Children are associated with more joy than misery. Psychological Science, 24, 3–10.
Nelson-Coffey, S. K. (2018). Married...with children: The science of well-being in marriage and family life. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of well-being. DEF Publishers
Nelson-Coffey, S. K., Borelli, J. L., & River, L. M. (2017). Attachment avoidance, but not anxiety, minimizes the joys of caregiving. Attachment & Human Development, 19, 504–531.
Pavot, W. (2018). The Cornerstone of Research on Subjective Well-Being: Valid Assessment Methodology. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.), Handbook of Well-Being (pp. 1-11). DEF Publishers.
Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). The Affective and Cognitive Context of Self-Reported Measures of Subjective Well-Being. Social Indicators Research, 28, 1-20.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2004). Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification. Oxford University Press.
R Development Core Team (2022). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Rath, T. (2007). StrengthsFinder 2.0. Simon and Schuster.
Reid, C. A. Y., Roberts, L. D., Roberts, C. M., & Piek, J. P. (2015). Towards a Model of Contemporary Parenting: The Parenting Behaviours and Dimensions Questionnaire. PLoS ONE, 10, Article e0114179.
Reise, S. P., Bonifay, W. E., & Haviland, M. G. (2013). Scoring and Modeling Psychological Measures in the Presence of Multidimensionality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 129-140.
Reise, S. (2012). The rediscovery of bifactor measurement models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47, 667-696.
Rodriguez, A., Reise, S. P., & Haviland, M. G. (2016). Evaluating bifactor models: Calculating and interpreting statistical indices. Psychological Methods, 21(2), 137–150.
Ruini, C. (2017). Positive psychology in the clinical domains: Research and practice. Springer.
Ryan, R.M, & Deci, E.L. (2001). On Happiness and Human Potentials: A Review of Research on Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141-166.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.
Ryff, C. D. (2018). Eudaimonic well-being: Highlights from 25 years of inquiry. In K. Shigemasu, S. Kuwano, T. Sato, & T. Matsuzawa (Eds.), Diversity in harmony–insights from psychology (pp. 375–395). Wiley.
Saaty, T. L. (1990). An Exposition on the AHP in Reply to the Paper “Remarks on the Analytic Hierarchy Process.” Management Science, 36(3), 259–268.
Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment. Free Press.
Seligman, M.E.P. (2011). Flourish: A New Understanding of Happiness and Wellbeing and How to Achieve Them. Nicholas Brealey.
Sheppard, M. (2010). The Parent Concerns Questionnaire: A Reliable and Valid Common Assessment Framework for Child and Family Social Care. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 371-390.
Sirgy, M. J. (2021). The Psychology of Quality of Life: Wellbeing and Positive Mental Health (3rd Ed.). Springer Nature.
Spurk, D., Hirschi, A., Wang, M., Valero, D., Kauffeld, S. (2020). Latent profile analysis: A review and “how to” guide of its application within vocational behavior research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 120, 103445.
Stalikas, A. & Kyriazos, T. (2019). Research Methods and Statistics Using R. Topos.
Stalikas, A., Kyriazos, T. A., Yotsidi, V., & Prassa, K. (2018). Using Bifactor EFA, Bifactor CFA and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Validate Factor Structure of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, Greek Version. Psychology, 9, 348-371.
Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the Presence of and Search for Meaning in Life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 80-93.
Streiner, D. L., Norman, G. R., & Cairney, J. (2015). Health Measurement Scales: A Practical Guide to Their Development and Use (5th ed.). Oxford University Press.
Stucky, B. D., & Edelen, M. O. (2014). Using hierarchical IRT models to create unidimensional measures from multidimensional data. In S. P. Reise & D. A. Revicki (Eds.), Handbook of item response theory modeling: Applications to typical performance assessment (pp. 183–206). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Stucky, B. D., Edelen, M. O., Vaughan, C. A., Tucker, J. S., & Butler, J. (2014). The Psychometric Development and Initial Validation of the DCI-A Short Form for Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment Process. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46, 516-521.
Vargha, A., & Delaney, H. D. (2000). A Critique and Improvement of the CL Common Language Effect Size Statistics of McGraw and Wong. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 25, 101-132.
Verhoeven, M., Deković, M., Bodden, D. & van Baar, A. L. (2017). Development and Initial Validation of the Comprehensive Early Childhood Parenting Questionnaire (CECPAQ) for Parents of 1 - 4 Year-Olds. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 233-247. ,
Werts, C. E., Linn, R. L., & Jöreskog, K. G. (1974). Intraclass reliability estimates: Testing structural assumptions. Educational and Psychological measurement, 34(1), 25-33.
Zumbo, B.D. & Chan, E.K.H. (2014). Setting the Stage for Validity and Validation in Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences: Trends in Validation Practices. In B.D. Zumbo and E.K.H. Chan (Eds.), Validity and Validation in Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences (pp.3–8). Springer International Publishing.
Most read articles by the same author(s)