| More

Evaluating the leukogram in the dog and cat

Views: 455 Downloads: 3954
T. A. PETAMIDIS (ΠΕΤΑΝΙΔΗΣ Θ.Α.), M. E. MYLONAKIS (Μ. Ε. ΜΥΛΩΝΑΚΗΣ), A. F. KOUTINAS (Α. Φ. ΚΟΥΤΙΝΑΣ)
T. A. PETAMIDIS (ΠΕΤΑΝΙΔΗΣ Θ.Α.), M. E. MYLONAKIS (Μ. Ε. ΜΥΛΩΝΑΚΗΣ), A. F. KOUTINAS (Α. Φ. ΚΟΥΤΙΝΑΣ)

Abstract


Leukogram, an important part of complete blood count, includes the total count, absolute differential counts and leukocyte morphology. For a valid interpretation of the leukogram, proper blood sampling and post-sampling handling is considered a prerequisite. Total leukocyte counts in the clinically healthy adult dog and cat usually range from 6000 to 17000 /μΐ and from 5500 to 19500 /μΐ, respectively. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and rarely basophils are the leukocytes recognized in the peripheral blood of these animal species. Leukocytosis and leukopenia may reflect pathological or physiologic responses to various endogenous or exogenous factors. Morphologic leukocyte changes may indicate an underlying inflammatory process (i.e. toxic changes), congenital and/or hereditary hematological abnormalities (i.e. Pelger-Hüet anomaly, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) and immune-mediated (i.e. systemic lupus erythematus) or neoplastic (i.e. lymphoid/myeloid leukemias) diseases. Detection of canine distemper virus inclusion bodies, Ehrlichia sp. morulae, Hepatozoon canis gamonts etc. in the cytoplasm of the various types of leukocytes is the most objective way to diagnose the relevant infectious diseases in the domestic carnivores.


Keywords


Leukogram interpretation; dog; cat

Full Text:

PDF

References


Brown MR, Rogers KS (2001) Neutropenia in dogs and cats: a retrospective study of 261 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc, 37:131-139

Bush BM (1991) White blood cells. In: Interpretation of Laboratory Results for Small Animal Clinicians. Bush BM (ed), Blackwell Scientific, Oxford,: 132-195

Center SA, Randolph JF, Erb ΗΝ, Reiter S (1990) Eosinophilia in the cat: a retrospective study of 312 cases (1975-1986). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 26: 349-358

Clinkenbeart KD, Meinkoth JH (2000) Normal hematology of the cat. In: Schalm's Veterinary Hematology. Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds), 5th ed, Lippinkott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia,: 1064-1068

Couto CG, Wellman M (1994) Disorders of Leukocytes and Leukopoiesis. In: The cat: Diseases and clinical management, Sherding RG (ed), Churchill Livingstone, New York,:724-734

Couto CG (1998) Hematology and Immunology. In: Small Animal Internal Medicine, Nelson RW, Couto CG (eds), 2nd ed, Mosby, StLouis,:1178-1186

Cowell RL, Decker LS (2000) Interpretation of feline leukocyte responses. In: Schalm's Veterinary Hematology, Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds), 5th ed, Lippinkott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia,: 382-390

Dunn JK (2000) Disorders of leukocyte number. In: Manual of Canine and Feline Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Day M J, Mackin A, Littlewood JD (eds), British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester,:93-104

Gaunt SD (2000) Extreme Neutrophilic Leukocytosis. In: Schalm's Veterinary Hematology, Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds), 5th ed, Lippinkott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia,:347-349

Gaunt SD and Baker DC (1986) Hemosiderin in leukocytes of dogs with immune mediated hemolytic anemia. Vet Clin Pathol, 15:8-10

de Gopegui RR, Feldman BF (1997) Diseases of Non-lymphocytic leukocytes. In: Practical Small Animal Internal Medicine, Leib MS, Monroe WE (eds), Saunders, Philadelphia,:947-957

Greenfield CL, Messick JB, Solter PF, Shaeffer DJ (1999) Leukopenia in six healthy Belgian Tervuren. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 215:1121-1122

Grodecki Κ (2000), Eosinophilia. In: Manual of Canine and Feline Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, Day MJ, Mackin A, Littlewood JD (eds), British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester,: 131-138

Harvey JW (2001) Examination of Blood samples. In: Atlas of Veterinary Hematology, Harvey JW (ed), WB Saunders, Philadelphia, :3-20

Hirsch VM, Cunningham TA (1984) Hereditary anomaly of neutrophil granulation in Birman cats. Am J Vet Res, 45:2170-4

Kisseberth WC, MacEwen EG (1996) Complications of Cancer and its Treatment. In: Small Animal Clinical Oncology, Withrow S J, MacEwen EG (eds), 2nd ed, WB Saunders, Philadelphia,: 129-146

Latimer KS, Tvedten H (1999), Leukocyte disorders. In: Small animal clinical diagnosis by laboratory methods, Willard MD, Tvedten H, Turnwald GH (eds), 3rd ed, WB Saunders, Philadelphia,:52-74

Latimer KS, Rakich PM, Thomson DF (1985) Pelger Hüet anomaly in cats. Vet Pathol, 22:370-374

Latimer KS (1995) Leukocytes in health and disease In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Diseases of the dog and cat, Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC (eds), 4th ed, WB Saunders, Philadelphia,: 1892-1929

Meinkoth JH, Clinkenbeard KD (2000) Normal hematology of the dog. In: Schalm's Veterinary Hematology, Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds), 5th ed, Lippinkott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia,:1057-1063

McManus PM, Litwin C, Barber L (1999) Immune mediated neutropenia in 2 dogs. J Vet Intern Med, 13:372-4

Meyer DJ, Harvey JW (1998) Evaluation of leukocytic disorders. In: Veterinary Laboratory Medicine, Meyer DJ, Harvey JW (eds), 2nd ed, WB Saunders, Philadelphia,:83-109

Moore FM, Bender HS (2000) Neutropenia. In: Schalm's Veterinary Hematology, Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds), 5th ed, Lippinkott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia,:350-355

Mylonakis ME, Koutinas AF, Billinis C, Leontides LS, Kontos V, Papadopoulos Ο, Rallis Τ, Fytianou A (2003) Evaluation of cytology in the diagnosis of acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis {Ehrlichia canis): a comparison between five methods. Vet Microbiol 91:197-204

Roudebush Ρ (1995) Adverse reaction to foods: Allergies. In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Diseases of the dog and cat, Ettinger S J, Feldman BF(eds), 4th ed, WB Saunders, Philadelphia,:258-262

Schultze EA (2000) Interpretation of canine leukocyte responses. In: Schalm's Veterinary Hematology, Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC (eds), 5th ed, Lippinkott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia,: 366-381

Stockham SL, Scott MA (2002a) Basic hematologic assays. In: Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Stockham SI, Scott MA (eds), Iowa State Press, Iowa,:31-48

Stockham SL, Scott MA (2002b) Leukocytes. In: Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, Stockham SI, Scott MA (eds), Iowa State Press, Iowa,:49-83

Tvedten H, Weiss DJ (1999) The complete blood count and bone marrow examination: general comments and selected techniques. In: Small animal clinical diagnosis by laboratory methods, Willard MD, Tvedten H, Turnwald GH (eds), 3rd ed, WB Saunders, Philadelphia,:ll-27

Villiers E, Dunn JK (1998) Basic Haematology. In: Manual of small animal clinical pathology, Davidson MG, Else RW, Lumsden JH (eds), British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester,: 33-60

Weber SE, Evans DA, Feldman BF (1981) Pelger Hüet anomaly of granulocytic leykocytes in two feline littermates. Feline Practice 11:44-47

Zinkl JG (1981) The leukocytes. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 11:237-63


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 T. A. PETAMIDIS, M. E. MYLONAKIS, A. F. KOUTINAS