An update on canine ehrlichiosis


Canine ehrlichiosis is a common disease caused by several Ehrlichia species, such as E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. risticii, E. ewingii, E. equi, E. platys, and an as yet unnamed granulocytotropic species or strain. Ehrlichia are tick-borne gram-negative bacteria that reside in the cytoplasm of various blood cells. The infected dogs, may manifest a wide spectrum of clinical signs, of which anorexia, depression, loss of body weight, peripheral lymphadenopathy, pale mucous membranes and bleeding tendency are the most common. The most consistent clinicopathologic findings are anemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and proteinuria. Apart from the clinical and clinicopathologic findings, diagnosis should be based on buffy coat, lymph node or bone marrow cytology, serology (ELISA, IFA) and/or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Doxycycline with or without imidocarb dipropionate constitute the mainstay of the etiological treatment, while blood transfusions, anabolic steroids, glucocorticosteroids, iron supplements and bactericidal antibiotics may be of some benefit in a certain number of cases. Effective tick control is of imperative importance for the prevention of the infection.

Article Details
  • Section
  • Review Articles
Download data is not yet available.
Ristic Μ, Holland CL. Canine Ehrlichiosis. In:Woldehivet Ζ, Ristic M (eds) Rickettsial and Chlamydial Diseases of Domestic Animals. Pergamon Press Ltd, Oxford 1993:169-186.
Donatien A, Lestoguard F. Existence en Algerie d, un Rickettsia du chien. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1935,28: 418-419.
Bool PH, Sutmoller P. Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Aruba (Netherlands Antilles). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1957, 130:418-420.
Ewing SA. Observations on leukocyte inclusion bodies from dogs infected with Babesia canis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1963, 143:503-506.
Huxsoll DL, Hildebrandt PK, Nims RM, Waker JS. Tropical canine pancytopenia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1970,157:1627-1632.
Walker JS, Rundquist JD, Tylor R, Wilson BL, Andrews MR, Barck J, Hogge AL Jr, Huxsoll DL, Hildebrandt PK, Nims RM. Clinical and clinicopathological findings in tropical canine pancytopenia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1970,157:43-55.
Nyindo MBA Ristic M, Huxsoll DL, Smith AR. Tropical canine pancytopenia: in vitro cultivation of the causative agent, Ehrlichia canis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 1971,32:1651-1658
Ristic M, Huxsoll DL, Weisiger RM, Hildebrandt PK, Nyindo MBA. Serological diagnosis of tropical canine pancytopenia by indirect immunofluorescence. Infect. Immun. 1972,6:226-231.
Anderson BE, Dawson JE, Jones DC, Wilson KH. Ehrlichia chaffeensis, a new species associated with human ehrlichiosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1991,29:2838-2842.
Iqbal Z, Rikihisa Y. Application of the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Ehrlichia canis in tissues of dogs. Vet. Microbiol. 1994,42:281-287.
Troy GC, Forrester SD. Canine Ehrlichiosis.In: Greene CE (ed) Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Saunders, Philadelphia 1990:404-418.
Dawson JE, Biggie KL, Warner CK, Cookson K, Jenkins S, Levine JF, Olson JG. Polymerase chain reaction evidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an etiologic agent of human
ehrlichiosis, in dogs from southeast Virginia. Am. J. Vet. Res. 1996,57:1175-1179.
Kakoma I, Hansen RD, Anderson BE, Hanley TA, Sims KG, Liu L, Bellamy K, Long MT, Baek BK. Cultural, molecular, and immunological charactrization of the etiologic agent for atypical canine ehrlichiosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1994,32:170-175.
Anderson BE, Greene CE, Jones DC, Dawson JE. Ehrlichia ewingii sp. nov. the etiologic agent of canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1992,42:299-302.
Madewell BR, Gribble DH. Infection in two dogs with an agent resembling Ehrlichia equi. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982, 180:512-514.
Harvey JW, Simpson CF, Gaskin JM. Cyclic thrombocytopenia induced by a Rickettsia-like agent in dogs. J Infect Dis 1978,137:182-188.
Clark AM. Tick-borne fever in dogs in Scotland. Comp Con Educ Pract. Vet (Supplement) 1997,19:64-65.
Egenvall AE, Hedhammar AA, Bjoersdorff AI, Clinical features and serology of 14 dogs affected by granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Sweden. Vet Ree 1997,140:222-226.
Pusterla N, Huder J, Wolfensberger C, Litschi B, Parris A, Lutz H.Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in two dogs in Switzreland. J Clin Microbiol 1997,35:2307-2309.
Dawson JE, Ewing SA. Susceptibility of dogs to infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis causitive agent of human ehrlichiosis. Am J Vet Res 1992,53:1322-1327.
Breitschwerd EB, Hegarty BC, Hancock SI. Sequential evaluation of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia ewingii, or
Bartonella vinsinii. J Clin Microbiol 1998,36:2645-2651.
Murphy GL, Ewing SA, Whitworth LC, Fox JC, Kocan AA. A molecular and serologic survey of Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and£. ewingii in dogs and ticks from Oklahoma.
Vet Parasitol 1998,79:325-339.
Kordick SK, Breitschwerd EB, Hegarty BC, Southwick KL, Colitz CM, Hancock SI, Bradley JM, Rumbough R, Mcpherson JT, MacCormack JN. Coinfection with multiple
tick-born pathogens in a Walker Hound kennel in North Carolina. J Clin Microbiol 1999,37:2631-2638.
Johansson KE, Pettersson B, Uhlen M , Gunnarsson A, Malmqvist M, Olsson E. Identification of the causitive agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Swedish dogs and horses by direct solid phase sequencing of PCR products from the 16 rRNA gene. Res Vet Sci 1995,58:109-112.
Olsen GL, Woese C, Overbeek R. The winds of (evolutionary) change: breathing new life into microbiology. Journal of Bacteriol 1994,176:1-6.
Goldman EE, Breitschwerdt EB, Grindem CB, Hegarty BC, Walls JJ, Dumler JS. Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs from North Carolina and Virginia. J Vet Int Med 1998,12: 61-70.
Chen SM, Dumler JS, Bakken JS, Walker DH. Identification of a granulocytotropic ehrlichia species as the etiologic agent of human disease. J Clin Microbiol 1994,32:589-595.
Johnson EM, Ewing SA, Barker RW, Fox JC, Crow DW, Kokan KM. Experimental transmssion of Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) byDermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Vet Parasitol 1998,74:277-288.
Groves MG, Dennis GL, Amyx HL, Huxsoll DL. Transmission of Ehrlichia canis to dogs by ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Am J Vet Res 1975,36:937-940
Smith RD, Sells M, Stephenson EH, Ristic M, Huxsoll DL. Development of Ehrlichia canis, causitive agent of canine ehrlichiosis, in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and its
differentiation from a symbiotic Rickettsia. Am J Vet Res 1976,37:119-126.
Lewis GE, Jr, Ristic M, Smith RD, Lincoln T, Stephenson EH. The brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the dog as experimental hosts of Ehrlichia canis. Am J Vet Res 1977,38:1953-1955.
Harms S, Waner T, Aizenberg I, Foley JE, Poland AM, Bark H. Amplification of ehrlichial DNA from dogs 34 months after infection with Ehrlichia canis. J Clin Microbiol 1998, 36:73-76.
Harms S, Bark H, Waner T. Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis: Un update. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet. 1997,19:431-444.
Anziani AS, Ewing SA, Barker RW. Experimental transmission of a granulocytic form of the tribe Ehrlichieae by Dermacentor variabilis midAmblyomma americanum to dogs. Am J Vet Res 1990,51:929-931.
Ewing SA, Dawson JE, Cocan AA, Barker RW, Warner CK, Panciera RJ, Fox JC, Cocan KM, Blouin EF. Experimental transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) among white-tailed deer by Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 1995,32:368-374.
Anderson BE, Sumner JW, Dawson JE, Tzianabos T, Greene CN, Olson JG, Fishbein DB, Olsen-Rasmussen M, Holloway BP, Georg EH, Azad AF. Detection of the etiologic agent of human ehrlichiosis by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1992,30: 775-780.
Ewing SA, Dawson JE, Panciera RJ, Mathew JS, Ratt KW, Katavolos P, Telford III SR. Dogs infected with a human granulocytotropic Ehrlichia spp (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichiae). J Med Entomol 1997,34:710-718.
Renbel GH, Kimsey RB, Barlough JE, Madigan JE. Experimental transmission of Ehrlichia equi to horses through naturally infected ticks (Ixodes pacificus) fron northern California. J Clin Microbiol 1998,36:2131-2134.
French TW, Harvey JW. Canine infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia (Ehrlichia platys) infection in dogs. In: Woldehivet Z, Ristic M (eds) Rickettsial and Chlamydial Diseases of Domestic Animals. Pergamon Press Ltd, Oxford 1993:195-208.
Hibler SC, Hoskins JD, Greene CH. Rickettsial Infections in Dogs Part II. Ehrlichiosis and Infectious Cyclic Thrombocytopenia. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 1986,8:106-114.
Codner EC, Farris-Smith LL. Characterization of the subclinical phase of ehrlichiosis in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986,189:47-50.
Dow SW, Lappin MR. Immunologic consequeces of infectious disease. In: Bonagura JD (ed) Kirk,s Current Vet Therapy Small Animal Practice XII. Saunders, Philadelphia 1995:267-271.
Simpson CF. Relationship of Ehrlichia canis infected mononuclear cells to blood vessels of the lung. Infect Immun 1974,10: 590-596.
Hildebrandt PK, Huxsoll DL, Walker JS, Nims RM Taylor R, Andrews M. Pathology of canine ehrlichiosis (Tropical Canine Pancytopenia). Am J Vet Res 1973,34:1309-1320.
Reardon MJ, Pierce KR. Acute experimental canine ehrlichiosis. II.Sequential reaction of the hemic and lymphoreticular system in selectively immunosuppressed dogs. Vet Pathol 1981,18:384-395.
Harms S, Waner T, Keysary A, Aroch I, Voet H, Bark H. Investigation of splenic functions in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol.1998,62:157.
Waner T, Harms S, Weiss DJ, Bark H, Keysary A. Demonstration of serum antiplatelet antibodies in experimental acute canine ehrlichiosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1995,48:177-182.
Harms S, Waner T, Weiss DJ, Keysary A, Bark H. Kinetics of serum antiplatelet antibodies in experimental acute canine ehrlichiosis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1996,51:13-20.
Grindem CB, Breitschwerdt EB, Perkins PC, Cullins RD, Thomas TG, Hegarty BC. Platelet-Associated Immunoglobulin (Antiplatelet Antibody) in Canine Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Ehrlichiosis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1999,35:56-61.
Harrus S, Waner T, Avidar Y. Serum protein alterations in canine ehrlichiosis. Vet Parasitol 1996,66:241-249.
Burghen GA, Beisel WR, Walker JS Nims RM, Huxsoll DL, Hildebrandt PK. Development of hypergammaglobulinemia in Tropical Canine Pancytopenia. Am J Vet Res 1971,32:749-756.
Woody BJ, Hoskins JD. Ehrlichial Diseases of Dogs.Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1991,21:75-101.
Lovering SL, Pierce KR, Adams LG. Serum complement and blood platelet adhesiveness in acute canine ehrlichiosis. Am J Vet Res 1980,41:1266-1271.
Harms S, Waner Τ, Eldor Α, Zwang E, Bark H. Platelet dysfunction associated with experimental acute canine ehrlichiosis. Vet Ree 1996,139:290-293.
Varela F, Font X, Valladares JE, Alberola J. Thrombocytopathia and light-chain proteinuria in a dog naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis. J Vet Intern Med 1997,11:309-311.
Lapin MR. Polysystemic rickettsial diseases. In: Nelson RW, Couto CG (eds) Small Animal Internal Medicine. Mosby, St Luis 1998: 280-287.
Gaunt SD, Baker DC, Babin SS. Platelet aggregation studies in dogs with acute Ehrlichia platys infection. Am J Vet Res 1990,51: 290-293.
Leeflang P. Relation between-carrier state Oxytetracycline administration and immunity in Ehrlichia canis infections. Vet Ree 1972,90:703-704.
Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, Hancock SI. Doxycycline hyclate treatment of experimental canine ehrlichiosis followed by challenge inoculation with two Ehrlichia canis strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemoth 1998,42:362-368.
Nyindo M, Huxsoll DL, Ristic M, Kakoma I, Brown JL, Carson CA, Stephenson EH. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of German Shepherd dogs and Beagles to experimental infection with Ehrlichia canis. Am J Vet Res 1980,41:250-254.
Harms S, Kass PH, Klement E, Waner T. Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis: a retrospective study of 100 cases, and an epidimiological investigation of prognostic indicators for the disease. Vet Ree 1997 141:360-363.
Van Heerden J. A retrospective study on 120 natural cases of canine ehrlichiosis. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1982,53:17-22.
Kuehn NF, Gaund SD. Clinical and hematologic findings in canine ehrlichiosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985,186:355-358.
Codner EC, Roberts RE, Ainsworth AG. Atypical findings in 16 cases of canine ehrlichiosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985, 186:166-169.
Buoro IBJ, Kanui TI, Atwell RB, Njenga KM, Gathumbi PK. Polymyositis associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in two dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1990,31:624-627.
Gerundolo R, Caprariis D, Manna L, Gravino AE. Reccurent deep pyoderma in German Shepherd dogs with underlying ehrlichiosis and hypergammaglobulinemia. Vet Dermatol 1998,9:135-138.
Frank JR, Breitschwerdt EB. A retrospective study of ehrlichiosis in 62 dogs from North Carolina and Virginia. J Vet Intern Med 1999,13:194-201.
Troy GC, Vulgamott JC, Turnwald GH. Canine ehrlichiosis: A retrospective study of 30 naturally occurring cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1980,16:181-187.
Waddle JR, Littman MP. A retrospective study of 27 cases of naturally occurring canine ehrlichiosis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1988,24:615-620.
Matthewman LA, Kelly PG, Bobade PA, Taqwira M, Mason PR, Majok A, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Infections with Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Zimbabwe. Vet Ree 1993, 133:344-346.
Beaufils JP. Ehrlichiosis: Clinical aspects in dogs and cats. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet (Supplement) 1997,19:57-61.
Schaer M, Meyer DJ, Young DG. A dual infection of Leishmania donovani and Ehrlichia canis in a dog. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 1985,7:531-534.
Gaunt SD, Corstvet RE, Berry CM, Brennan B. Isolation of Ehrlichia canis in dogs following subcutaneous inoculation. J Clin Microbiol 1996,34:1429-1432.
Hegarty BC, Levy MG, Gager RF, Breitschwerdt EB. Immunologic analysis of the immunoglobulin G response to Ehrlichia canis in dogs: an international survey. J Vet Diagn Invest 1997,9:32-38.
Waner Τ Harrus S, Bark H, Bogin E, Avidar Y, Keysary A. Characterization of the subclinical phase of ehrlichiosis in experimentally infected Beagle dogs. Vet Parasitol 1997, 69:307-317.
Stockham SL, Schmidt DA, Curtis KS, Schauf BG, Tyler JW, Simpson ST. Evaluation of granulocytic ehrlichiosis in dogs in Missuri, including serologic status to Ehrlichia canis,
Ehrlichia equi and Borrelia burgdorferi. Am J Vet Res 1992, 53:63-68.
Meinkoth JH, Ewing SA, Cowwel RL, Dawson JE, Warner CK, Mathew JS, Bowls M, Thiessen AE, Panciera RJ, Fox C. Morphologic and molecular evidence of a dual species
ehrlichial infection in a dog presenting with inflammatory central nervous system disease. J Vet Intern Med 1998, 12:389-393.
Greig B, Asanovich KM, Armstrong Ρ J, Dumler JS. Geographic, clinical, serologic, and molecular evidence of granulocytic ehrlichiosis, a likely zoonotic disease, in Minnesota and Wisconsin dogs. J Cli Microbiol 1996,34:44-48.
Kontos VI, Papadopoulos O, French TW. Natural and experimental infection with a Greek strain of Ehrlichia platys. Vet Clin Pathol 1991,20:101-105.
Harrus S, Lavy E, Bark H. Clinical manifestations of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia. Vet Ree 1997, 141: 247-250.
Buhles WC, Huxsoll DL, Ristic M. Tropical canine pancytopenia: Clinical, hematologic, and serologic response of dogs to Ehrlichia canis infection, tetracycline therapy, and challenge inoculation. J Infect Dis 1974,130:357-367.
Penile AL, Matus RE. Canine ehrlichiosis in six dogs with persistently increased antibody titers. J Vet Intern Med 1991, 5:195-198.
Harrus S, Ofri R, Aizenberg I, Waner T. Acute blindness associated with monoclonal gammopathy induced by Ehrlichia canis infection. Vet Parasitol 1998,78:155-160.
Kaneko JJ. Serum proteins and the dysproteinemias. In:Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML (eds) Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals. Academic Press, San Diego 1997:117-138.
Center SA. Acute hepatic injury: Hepatic necrosis and fulminant hepatic failure. In:Guilfodr WG et al (eds) Strombeck's Small Animal Gastroenterology. Saunders, Philadelphia 1995:654-704.
Codner EC, Caceci T, Saunders GK, Smith CA, RobertsonJL, Martin RA, Troy GC. Investigation of glomerular lessions in dogs with experimentally induced Ehrlichia canis
infection. Am J Vet Res 1992,53:2286-2291.
Lewis GE, Huxsoll DL, Ristic M, Johnson AJ. Experimentally induced infection of dogs, cats, and nonhuman primates with Ehrlichia equi, etiologic agent of equine ehrlichiosis. Am J Vet Res 1974,36:85-88.
Lilliehook I, Egenvall A, Twedten H. Hematopathology in dogs experimentally infected with a Swedish granulocytic ehrlichia species. Vet Clin Pathol 1998,27:116-122.
Ristic M, Huxsoll DL, Weisiger RM, Hildebrandt PK, Nyindo MBA. Serologie diagnosis of tropical canine pancytopenia by indirect immunofluorescense. Infect Immun 1972,6;226-231.
French TW, Harvey JW. Serologic diagnosis of infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia in dogs using an indirecr fluorescent antibody test. Am J Vet Res 1983,44:2407-2411.
Ristic M, Holland CJ, Dawson JE, Sessions J, Palmer J Diagnosis of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever) by indirect immunofluorescense. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986,189:39-46.
Cadman HF, Kelly PG, Matthewman LA, Zhou R, Mason PR. Comparison of the dot-blot enzyme linked immunoassay with immunofluorescence for detecting antibodies to Ehrlichia canis. Vet Ree 1994,135:362.
Breitschwerdt EB. Laboratory diagnosis of tick transmitted diseases in the dog. In: Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy Small Animal Practice XI. Saunders, Philadelphia 1992:252-
Bartsch RC, Greene RT. Post-therapy antibody titers in dogs with ehrlichiosis: follow-up study on 68 patients treated primarily with tetracycline and/or doxycycline. J Vet Intern
Med. 1996,10:271-274.
Wen B, Rikihisa Y, Mott JM, Greene R, Kim HY, Zhi N, Couto GC, Unver A, Bartsch R. Comparison of nested PCR with immunofluorescent-antibody assay for detection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs treated with doxycycline. J ClinMicrob 1997,35:1852-1855.
Rikihisa Y, Ewing SA, Fox JC. Western Immunoblot analysis of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. canis or E. ewingii infections in dogs and humans. J Clin Microbiol 1994,32:2107-2112.
Iqbal Z, Chaichanasiriwithaya W, Rikihisa Y. Comparison of PCR with other tests for early diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis. J Clin Microbiol 1994, 32:1658-1662.
McBride JW, Corstvet RE, Gaunt SD, Chinsangaram J, Akita GY, Osburn BI. PCR detection of acute Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. J Vet Diagn Invest 1996,8:441-447.
Nyindo M, Holland CJ, Kakoma I. Current status of the in vitro cultivation of Ehrlichiae. In: Williams JC, kakoma I (eds) Ehrlichiosis: A vector-borne disease of animals and humans. Klawer Academic Press, Dordrecht 1990:9-21.
Couto CG. It's a coagulopathy But couldn't it be ehrlichiosis? In proc 4th Europ FECAVA-SCIVAC congr 1998:135-136.
Plumb DC. Veterinary Drug Handbook. Plumb DC (ed) Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1995:223-227
Riviere JE, Spoo JW. Tetracycline Antibiotics. In: Adams HR (ed) Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Ames: Iowa State University Press 1995:780-793.
Harms S, Waner T, Aizenberg I, Bark H. Therapeutic effect of doxycycline in experimental subclinical canine monocytic ehrlichiosis: Evaluation of a 6-week course. J Clin Microbiol 1997,36:2140-2142.
Lappin MR. Rickettsial Diseases. In: Leib MS, Monroe WE (eds) Practical Small Animal Internal Medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia 1997:861-872.
Buckner RG, Ewing SA. Experimental treatment of canine ehrlichiosis and haemobartonellosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1967,150:1524-1530.
Brouqui P, Raoult D. Susceptibilities of ehrlichia to antibiotics. IN:Raoult D (ed) Antimicrobial agents and intracellular pathogens. CRC Press, Boca Raton 1993:181-199.
Kontos VI, Athanasiou LV. Use of enrofloxacin in the treatment of acute canine ehrlichiosis. Canine Pract 1998, 23:10-14.
Breitschwerd EB, Papich MG, Hegarty BC, Gilger B, Hancock SI, Davidson MG. Efficacy of doxycycline, azithromycine, or trovafloxacin for the treatment of experimental Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in dogs. Antimicrob Agents and Chemother 1999,43:813-821.
Neer T.M, Eddlestone M, Gaunt S.D, Corstvet R.E. Efficacy of enrofloxacine for the treatment of experimentally induced Ehrlichia canis infection. J Vet Intern Med 1999,13:501-504.
Price JE, Dolan TT. A comparison of the efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate and tetracycline hydrochloride in the treatment of canine ehrlichiosis. Vet Ree 1980,107:275-277.
Matthewman LA, Kelly Ρ J, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Further evidence for the efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate in the treatment of Ehrlichia canis infection. J S Afr Vet Assoc
Van Heerden J, Van Heerden A. Attempted treatment of canine ehrlichiosis with imidocarb dipropionate. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1981,52:173-175.
Kelly Ρ J, Matthewman LA, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Lack of susceptibility of Ehrlichia canis to imidocarb dipropionate in vitro. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1998,69:55-56.
Estrada-Pena A, Ascher F. Comparison of an Amitrazimpregnated collar with topical administration of fipronil for prevention of experimental and natural infestation by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus).] Am Vet Med
Ascher F, Boyd JP, Elf assy O. Effect of water immersion on the residual efficacy of an amitraz collar. In: Proc 5th International Symposium on Ectoparasiticides of pets. Ford Collins-Colorado, 1999.116.Amyx HL, Huxsoll DL, Zeiler DC, Hildebrandt PK. Therapeutic and prophylactic value of tetracycline in dogs infected with the agent of tropical canine pancytopenia. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1971,159:1428-1432.
Most read articles by the same author(s)