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«Από την ριζοσπαστικοποίηση στον βίαιο εξτρεμισμό και την τρομοκρατία: επίπεδα ανάλυσης, θεωρητικές προσεγγίσεις και ο ρόλος του Διαδικτύου»

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Ντόρα Γιαννάκη, Διονύσης Πάνος
Ντόρα Γιαννάκη, Διονύσης Πάνος

Περίληψη


Περίληψη

 

Αναμφισβήτητα, το φαινόμενο της ριζοσπαστικοποίησης αποτελεί σήμερα κεντρικό ζήτημα στην παγκόσμια πολιτική ατζέντα, με το ενδιαφέρον να εστιάζεται στην περίπτωση της θρησκευτικής ριζοσπαστικοποίησης και της Ισλαμιστικής τρομοκρατίας. Η ακαδημαϊκή κοινότητα έχει επικεντρώσει τις προσπάθειές της στον προσδιορισμό των παραγόντων και των μηχανισμών της ριζοσπαστικοποίησης, ιδίως εκείνων που οδηγούν στον βίαιο εξτρεμισμό και την τρομοκρατία. Η άσκηση αυτή αποδεικνύεται εξαιρετικά δύσκολη εξαιτίας του πολυπαραγοντικού χαρακτήρα της ριζοσπαστικοποίησης και των ιδιαίτερα ποικιλόμορφων προφίλ των ατόμων που εμπλέκονται σ’ αυτήν. Στην παρούσα εργασία, αναδεικνύεται η σημασία των διαφορετικών (εν δυνάμει «υποστηρικτικών») περιβαλλόντων της ριζοσπαστικοποίησης ενώ, επιπλέον, παρουσιάζονται ορισμένες από τις κυριότερες θεωρητικές προσεγγίσεις του φαινομένου προκειμένου να διαφανεί η ποικιλία και η αλληλόδραση των παραγόντων της ριζοσπαστικοποίησης. Στην συνέχεια, εξετάζεται διεξοδικά η συμβολή του Διαδικτύου, ως «υποστηρικτικό περιβάλλον», στην διαδικασία της ριζοσπαστικοποίησης και της στρατολόγησης, απ’ όπου προκύπτει το συμπέρασμα ότι ο ρόλος του Διαδικτύου είναι τελικά περισσότερο «διευκολυντικός» παρά καθοριστικός.

 

Abstract

 

Undoubtedly, the phenomenon of radicalization is now a central issue on the global political agenda, with the emphasis placed mainly on the case of religious radicalization and Islamist terrorism. The academic community has focused its efforts on identifying the factors and mechanisms of radicalization, especially those leading to violent extremism and terrorism. Indeed, this exercise has proved very difficult due to the multifactorial nature of radicalization and the great variety of profiles of people involved in it. This essay highlights the importance of different (potential ‘supportive’) environments of radicalization whilst also presenting some of the main theoretical approaches of the phenomenon in order to indicate the variety and interaction of radicalization factors. Then, it thoroughly examines the contribution of the Internet, as a ‘supportive environment’, in the process of radicalization and recruitment; our conclusion is that the Internet has a more ‘facilitating’ rather than a decisive role.


Λέξεις κλειδιά


Ριζοσπαστικοποίηση; Βίαιος Εξτρεμισμός; Τρομοκρατία; Διαδίκτυο; Μέσα Κοινωνικής Δικτύωσης

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