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Επίδραση του Βαθμού Τελειοθηρίας στα Ψυχοσυναισθηματικά και Γνωστικά Χαρακτηριστικά των Παιδιών με Υψηλές Ακαδημαϊκές Επιδόσεις


Δημοσιευμένα: Sep 14, 2021
Λέξεις-κλειδιά:
τελειοθηρία σχολική επίδοση άγχος κατάθλιψη στρατηγικές αντιμετώπισης
Αλέξανδρος-Σταμάτιος Αντωνίου
Ειρήνη Ξυπολιτά
Περίληψη

Ένας αυξανόμενος αριθμός ερευνητικών ευρημάτων έχει συνδέσει την ύπαρξη τελειοθηρίας σε παιδιά και εφήβους, τόσο με δυσκολίες στη σχολική και κοινωνική προσαρμογή όσο και με συνοδά προβλήματα, συμπεριλαμβανομένων έντονης ψυχικής δυσφορίας και αυξημένων επιπέδων άγχους. Συγκεκριμένα, τα παιδιά με υψηλές ακαδημαϊκές επιδόσεις έχουν την τάση να προσπαθούν έχοντας ως στόχο την τελειότητα και ασκώντας αυστηρή κριτική στους εαυτούς τους με το να αντιλαμβάνονται και το ελάχιστο λάθος τους ως απόδειξη αποτυχίας. Η τελειοθηρία συνήθως αναφέρεται σε δύο βασικές κατηγορίες: την αυτοπροσανατολιζόμενη και την κοινωνικά οριζόμενη τελειοθηρία. Και οι δυο αυτές εκφάνσεις της τελειοθηρίας έχουν επίδραση στην ακαδημαϊκή επίδοση των παιδιών. Όσον αφορά στις συναισθηματικές συνέπειες της τελειοθηρίας έχουν παρατηρηθεί αυξημένα επίπεδα φόβου και μελαγχολίας καθώς και συσχέτιση με άγχος, κατάθλιψη και ψυχοσωματικά συμπτώματα. Ακόμη, τα παιδιά με υψηλά επίπεδα τελειοθηρίας χαρακτηρίζονται από μία συνεχή ανησυχία ως προς τη σχολική τους επίδοση και βαθμολογία αλλά και από έντονο βαθμό ανταγωνιστικότητας έναντι των συμμαθητών τους. Η ανταγωνιστικότητα δε αυτή ενισχύεται από τη σύνδεσή της με έντονη και συστηματική διάθεση αυτοκριτικής ως αποτέλεσμα της εικόνας που τα άτομα αυτά επιθυμούν να εμφανίσουν στους άλλους. Χαρακτηριστικό ερευνητικό εύρημα θεωρείται η υψηλή θετική συσχέτιση μεταξύ τελειοθηρίας, κατάθλιψης και του κοινωνικού άγχους, του βαθμού κοινωνικής υποστήριξης από το περιβάλλον αναφοράς και των στρατηγικών αντιμετώπισης των στρεσογόνων καταστάσεων και επίλυσης των κοινωνικών προβλημάτων.

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