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Ο Ρόλος των Βιολογικών και Γενετικών Παραγόντων στο Επίπεδο της Ευφυΐας


Δημοσιευμένα: Sep 14, 2021
Λέξεις-κλειδιά:
νοημοσύνη βιολογικοί παράγοντες κληρονομικότητα αλκοόλ εξωσωματική γονιμοποίηση
Βασιλική Ντόφη
Καλομοίρα Νιαστή
Αλέξανδρος-Σταμάτιος Αντωνίου
Περίληψη

Πολλοί ερευνητές έχουν στραφεί στη μελέτη του εγκεφάλου ως τη βάση της θεώρησης της νοημοσύνης και της μέτρησής της. Πολλές πτυχές της ανατομίας του εγκεφάλου και της Φυσιολογίας έχουν προταθεί ως ενδεχομένως σχετικές με τη νοημοσύνη. Οι διακλαδώσεις των νευρώνων στον εγκεφαλικό φλοιό, ο μεταβολισμός της εγκεφαλικής γλυκόζης, η ταχύτητα μεταφοράς νευρικών σημάτων αποτελούν κάποιους από τους παράγοντες της Φυσιολογίας που έχει βρεθεί ότι σχετίζονται με τη νοημοσύνη. Σχετικά με τη γενετική προέλευση της νοημοσύνης, αποτελέσματα ερευνών δείχνουν κυρίως ότι η κληρονομικότητα ασκεί μία ισχυρότερη επίδραση σε σχέση με το περιβάλλον στις νοητικές διαφορές. Επικεντρώνονται σε ποικίλες περιπτώσεις διδύμων, όπως σε μονοζυγωτικούς διδύμους και διζυγωτικούς διδύμους, σε βιολογικά και ετεροθαλή αδέλφια, κάθε ζεύγος από τα οποία ανατράφηκε μαζί ή χωριστά από τη βρεφική ηλικία ή αργότερα στη ζωή. Τέλος, τα τελευταία χρόνια, ορισμένες έρευνες διερευνούν την έκθεση στο αλκοόλ κατά την εγκυμοσύνη ως παράγοντα για την κατοπινή μείωση της νοημοσύνης των παιδιών, ενώ άλλες απενεχοποιούν τη μέθοδο της εξωσωματικής γονιμοποίησης και συγκεκριμένα της ICSI, αφού τα αποτελέσματα σχεδόν απέκλεισαν οποιαδήποτε καθυστέρηση στη νοητική ανάπτυξη του παιδιού.

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