| More

Η επίδραση της έκθεσης σε εικόνες προτύπων ελκυστικών ανθρώπων στην εικόνα σώματος των μεσηλίκων

Views: 354 Downloads: 226
Στεργιανή Παράσχου (http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1932-7957), Δέσποινα Μωραΐτου (http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0527-7143)
Στεργιανή Παράσχου, Δέσποινα Μωραΐτου

Περίληψη


Στόχος της μελέτης ήταν να εξετάσει πώς τα άτομα της Μέσης Ηλικίας αντιλαμβάνονται την Εικόνα Σώματός τους. Το δείγμα αποτελούνταν από 20 άτομα και των δύο φύλων, ισοκατανεμημένα σε δύο ομάδες, πειραματική και ελέγχου. Η πειραματική εκτέθηκε σε εικονικά ερεθίσματα που απεικόνιζαν ελκυστικούς κατά τα ιδανικά πρότυπα της εποχής ανθρώπους, τους οποίους παρουσιάζουν τα Μ.Μ.Ε. Η ομάδα ελέγχου εκτέθηκε σε ελκυστικούς -αλλά όχι σύμφωνα με τα ιδανικά πρότυπα της εποχής- ανθρώπους της «καθημερινής ζωής». Σε όλους τους συμμετέχοντες χορηγήθηκαν ερωτηματολόγια πριν και μετά την έκθεσή τους στις εικόνες, τα οποία μετρούσαν την αυτοεκτίμηση και την τρέχουσα συνολική εικόνα για το σώμα τους. Τα αποτελέσματα έδειξαν πως οι μεσήλικες επηρεάζονται αρνητικά ως προς την ικανοποίηση από την εικόνα σώματός τους, μετά την έκθεσή τους σε εικόνες ελκυστικών ατόμων, ανεξαρτήτως αν το περιεχόμενό τους συμφωνεί με τα ιδανικά πρότυπα της εποχής ή όχι. Ωστόσο, η αυτοεκτίμηση επηρεάστηκε  αρνητικά μόνο για τα άτομα που εκτέθηκαν σε εικόνες που προβάλλουν τα ιδανικά πρότυπα της εποχής. Αντιθέτως, στην περίπτωση της έκθεσης σε εικόνες «καθημερινών» ελκυστικών ατόμων, η αυτοεκτίμηση ανέβηκε.


Λέξεις κλειδιά


μέση ηλικία; εκλυστικότητα; ιδανικά πρότυπα; ικανοποίηση από την εικόνα σώματος

Πλήρες Κείμενο:

PDF

Αναφορές


Anderson, V. (2000). A will of its own: Experiencing the body in chronic illness. In Miedema, B., Stoppard, J. M., Anderson,V. (Eds.), Women’s bodies, women’s lives (pp. 29–42). Toronto: Sumach Press.

Arbour, K. P., & Ginis, K. A. M. (2006). Effects of exposure to muscular and hypermuscular media images on young men’s muscularity dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 3, 153–161.

Argyrides, M., & Kkeli, N. (2013). Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire- Appearance Scales: Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version. Psychological Reports, 113(3), 885–897.

Argyrides, M., Kkeli, N., & Kendeou, P. (2014). Validation of the factor structure of the Greek adaptation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3). Body Image, 11, 201–205.

Ata, R. N., Ludden, A. B., & Lally, M. M. (2007). The effects of gender and family, friend, and media influences on eating behaviors and body image during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(8), 1024–1037.

Baker, L., & Gringart, E. (2009). Body image and self-esteem in older adulthood. Ageing and Society, 29(6), 977–995.

Bedford, J. L., & Johnson, C. S. (2006). Societal influences on body image dissatisfaction in younger and older women, Journal of Women and Aging, 18, 41–55.

Blond, A. (2008). Impacts of exposure to images of ideal bodies on male body dissatisfaction: A review. Body Image 5(3), 244-250.

Brown, T. A., Cash, T. F., & Mikulka, P. J. (1990). Attitudinal body-image assessment: factor analysis of the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 50, 135-144 .

Bullington, J. (2006). Body and self: a phenomenological study on the ageing body and identity. J Med Ethics: Medical Humanities, 32, 25–31.

Cash, T. F. (2000). MBSRQ users' manual. (3rd ed.) Norfolk, VA: Old Dominion Univer. Press.

Cash, T. F. (2004). Body image: past, present, and future. Body Image, 1, 1-5.

Cash, T. F., Morrow, J. A., Hrabosky, J. I., & Perry, A. A. (2004). How has body image changed? A cross-sectional investigation of college women and men from 1983 to 2001. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 1081-1089.

Cash, T. F., & Pruzinsky, T. (2002). Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–140.

Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T.-A. (1997). Objectification Theory: Toward Understanding Women's Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks. Psycology og Women Quarterly, 21(2), 173-206.

Frieswijk, N., Buunk, B. P., Steverink, N., & Slaets, J. P. (2004). The effect of social comparison information on the life satisfaction of frail older persons. Psychology and Aging, 19, 183–190.

Furnham, A., Badmin, N., & Sneade, I. (2002). Body Image Dissatisfaction: Gender Differences in Eating Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Reasons for Exercise. The Journal of Psychology, 13(6), 581–596.

Galanou, C. (2013). Validation of Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale in Greek Language. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.

Gosselink, C. A., Cox, D. L., McClure, S. J., & De Jong, M. L. (2008). Ravishing or ravaged:women’s relationships with women in the context of aging andWestern beauty culture. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 66, 307–327.

Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134(3), 460–76.

Grogan, S. (2006). Body Image and Health: Contemporary Perspectives. Journal of Health Psychology, 11(4), 523–530.

Halliwell, E. (2013). The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: Does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?. Body Image, 10, 509–514.

Halliwell, E., & Dittmar, H. (2004). Does size matter? The impact of model’s body size on women’s body-focussed anxiety and advertising effectiveness. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(1), 104–122.

Hargreaves, D. A., & Tiggemann, M. (2004). Idealized media images and adolescent body image: “comparing” boys and girls. Body Image, 1, 351–361.

Heinberg, L. J., & Thompson, J. K. (1995). Body image and televised images of thinness and attractiveness: A controlled laboratory investigation. Joumal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 14, 325-338.

Hobza, C. L., Walker, K. E., Yakushko, O., & Peugh, J. L. (2007). What about men? Social comparison and the effects of media images on body and self-esteem. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(3), 161–172.

IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk,

NY: IBM Corp.

Jankowski, G. S., Diedrichs, P. C., Williamson, H., Christopher, G., & Harcourt, D.

(2014). Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative

study of ageing and body image among older adults. Journal of Health

Psychology, 21(4), 550-561.

Katz, S., & Marshall, B. (2003). New sex for old: lifestyle, consumerism, and the ethics of aging well. Journal of Aging Studies, 17, 3–16.

Klaczynski, P.A., Goold, K.W., & Mudry, J.J. (2004). Culture, obesity stereo- types, self-esteem, and the “thin ideal”: A social identity perspective. Journal of Youth Adolescent, 33(4), 307– 328.

Koukouli, S., Pattakou-Parasyri, V., & Kalaitzaki, A. E. (2013). Self-Reported Aging Anxiety in Greek Students, Health Care Professionals, and Community Residents: A Comparative Study. The Gerontologist, 54(2), 201–210.

Κωσταρίδου-Ευκλείδη, Α. (2011). Θέματα Γηροψυχολογίας και Γεροντολογίας. Αθήνα: Πεδίο.

Κωσταρίδου-Ευκλείδη, Α. (2012). Ψυχολογία κινήτρων. Αθήνα: Πεδίο.

Lewallen, J., & Behm-Morawitz, E. (2016). Pinterest or Thinterest?: Social Comparison and Body Image on Social Media. Social Media + Society, 1–9.

Liechty, T., Ribeiro, N. F., Sveinson, K., & Dahlstrom, L. (2014). "It's About What I Can Do With My Body": Body Image and Embodied Experiences of Aging Among Older Canadian Men. International Journal of Men's Health, 3-21.

McCabe, M. P., & Ricciardelli, L. Α. (2004). Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan: a review of past literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 56(6), 675–685.

McCarthy, J. D., & Hoge, D. R. (1982). Analysis of age effects in longitudinal studies of adolescent self-esteem. Developmental Psychology, 18, 372–379.

Monteil, J. M. (1993b). Towards a social psychology of cognition. In Hurtig, M.C., Pichevin, M. F., Piolat, M. (Eds.) Self-concept and social cognition. (pp.209-219) Singapore: Scientific Writings.

Muth, J. L., & Cash, T. F. (1997). Body-image attitudes: what difference does gender make? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1438-1452.

Myers, P. N., & Biocca, F. A. (1992). The elastic body image: The effect of television advertising and programming on body image distortions in young women. Journal of Communication, 42, 108–133.

Myers, T. A., & Crowther, J. H. (2009). Social comparison as a predictor of body dissatisfaction: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(4), 683–98.

Olivardia, R., Pope Jr., H. G., Borowiecki III, J. J., & Cohane G. H. (2004). Biceps and Body Image: The Relationship Between Muscularity and Self-Esteem, Depression, and Eating Disorder Symptoms. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5(2), 112–120.

Peat, C. M., Peyerl, M. L., & Muehlenkamp, J. J. (2008). Body Image and Eating Disorders in Older Adults: A Review. The Journal of General Psychology, 135(4), 343–358.

Pruis, Τ. Α., & Janowsky, S. J. (2010). Assessment of Body Image in Younger and Older Women, The Journal of General Psychology, 137(3), 225-238.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Silbert, E., & Tippett, J. (1965). Self-esteem: clinical assessment and measurement. Psychological reports, 16(3).

Stice, E. (2002). Risk and maintenance factors for eating pathology: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 825–848.

Strahan, E. J. (2003). Selling thinness: How media images increase importance of weight and beauty as a basis of women’s self-esteem and decrease their body satisfaction and eating. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Thompson, J. K. (1990). Body Image Disturbance: Assesment and Treatment. New York: Pergamon Press.

Thompson, J.K., Heinberg, L.J., Altabe, M. et al. (1999). Exacting Beauty: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment of Body Image Disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Thompson, J. K., Van den Berg, P., Roehrig, M., Guarda, A. S., & Heinberg, L. J. (2004). The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale-3 (SATAQ-3): Development and validation. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35, 293–304.

Tiggemann, M. (2004). Body image across the adult life span: stability and change. Body Image, 1, 29-41.

Tiggemann, M., Martins, Y., & Kirkbride, A. (2007). Oh to be lean and muscular: Body image ideals in gay and heterosexual men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(1), 15-24.

Tiggemann, M., Polivy, J., & Hargreaves, D. (2009). The processing of thin ideals in fashion magazines: A source of social comparison or fantasy?. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 73–93.

Tiggemann, M., & Slater, A. (2004). Thin Ideals in Music Television: A Source of Social Comparison and Body Dissatisfaction. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35(1), 48–58.

Van den Berg, P., Paxton, S. J., Keery, H., Wall, M., Guo, J., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2007). Body dissatisfaction and body comparison with media images in males and females. Body Image, 4(3), 257–268.

Van den Berg, P., Thompson, J.K., Obremski-Brandon, K., et al. (2002). The tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance: a covariance structure modeling investigation testing the mediational role of appearance comparison. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 1007–1020.

Wagaman, A. L. (2011). The Media’s Influence on College Females’ Body Satisfaction. Western Carolina University.

Webster, J., & Tiggemann, M. (2003). The relationship between women’s body satis- faction and self-image across the life span: The role of cognitive control, Journal of Genetic Psychology, 164, 241–252.

Yamamiya, Y., Cash, T. F., Melnyk, S. E., Posavac, H. D., & Posavac, S. S. (2005). Women’s exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images: Body image effects of media-ideal internalization and impact-reduction interventions. Body Image, 2(1), 74–8


Εισερχόμενη Αναφορά

  • Δεν υπάρχουν προς το παρόν εισερχόμενες αναφορές.


Copyright (c) 2019 Στεργιανή Παράσχου, Δέσποινα Μωραΐτου

Creative Commons License
Η χρήση του περιεχομένου καθορίζεται από την άδεια Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.